Bernard Becker Collection in Ophthalmology


Rare Books — #201 – 250

201 Jackson, Edward, 1856-1942.

A manual of the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases of the eye. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1900.

604 p.: ill.; 21 cm.

While convalescing from an attack of diphtheria, which caused him prolonged paralysis of one leg and the focusing muscles of the eyes, Jackson became interested in the disorders of vision. Upon resuming his medical practice in 1884, he devoted himself largely to ophthalmology, becoming professor of ophthalmology at the Philadelphia Polyclinic and surgeon to the Wills Eye Hospital. Jackson moved to Denver in 1899 where he continued his professional activities. He founded the Ophthalmic Yearbook in 1909, which he edited until 1917.

Jacque, Charles, 1813-1894.

See Print 12.

202 Jaeger, Eduard, Ritter von Jaxtthal, 1818-1884.

Ueber die Behandlung des grauen Staares an der ophthalmologischen Klinik der Josephs-Akademie. Vienna: C. Ueberreuter, 1844.

x, 11-70 p.; 20 cm.

A statistical and descriptive analysis of the treatment of cataract at Vienna’s principle ophthalmological clinic during the years 1826 to 1844, presented as Jaeger’s inaugural dissertation. The author, son of Friedrich von Jaeger and grandson of G. J. Beer (37-40), was the first to describe the ophthalmoscopic appearances in cases of diabetes.

Hirschberg §1235-1240.

203 Jaeger, Eduard, Ritter von Jaxtthal, 1818-1884.

Ueber Staar und Staaroperationen nebst anderen Beobachtungen und Erfahrungen. Vienna: L. W. Seidel, 1854.

[iii]-viii, [2], 128 p., VIII plates; 23 cm.

Jaeger’s work on cataract and its surgical treatment is also one of the earliest books in which the descriptions of pathological states are based upon ophthalmoscopic examination. Pages 89 to 109 describe the ophthalmoscope and the ophthalmoscopic illustrations on plates II thru VIII.

Hirschberg §1241.

204 Jaeger, Eduard, Ritter von Jaxtthal, 1818-1884.

Beiträge zur Pathologie des Auges. Vienna: Kaiserlich-königliche Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 1855-70.

2 v. (56 p., XXI plates; [4], 57-219 p., XXII-LXXVII plates); 35 cm.

A collection of seventy-seven chromolithographic plates issued in parts between 1855 and 1870, illustrating the varying appearances of the fundus in health and disease. About this work Julius Jacobsen commented, “Ed. Jäger in seinem seit 1855 erscheinenden Beiträge zur Pathologie des Auges bis jetzt unbestritten die besten bildlichen Darstellungen der ophthalmoskopischen Veränderungen geliefert hat” (Königsberger Med. Jahrb. I:301). Hirschberg saw the original drawings of Jaeger’s ophthalmoscopic views in 1871. He later remarked that the chromolithographic reproductions failed to capture the brilliance of the originals, testifying to Jaeger’s artistic abilities, his powers of observation, and the limitations of color printing in the third quarter of the nineteenth century. A concordance of the plates in this first edition, the 1870 second edition (207), and the Hand-Atlas (206) follows the text.

Hirschberg §1031, 1240.

204.1 Jaeger, Eduard, Ritter von Jaxtthal, 1818-1884.

Augenspiegel nach Jaeger. Manuscript, ca. 1860.

[14] leaves; 15 cm.

A medical manuscript containing notes about Jaeger’s observations on the human eye with the aid of the ophthalmoscope. Jaeger introduced direct ophthalmoscopy, and with this new method he determined objectively the refractive error in the eye, as well as describing and illustrating the diseases of the ocular fundus. Hirschberg valued Jaeger’s contributions very highly, and claimed that “Jäger was the greatest ophthalmoscopist of the world, and it seems doubtful whether anybody could follow him who would achieve this level of expertise” (Hirschberg §1236).

This manuscript written by an unknown hand also contains an abstract of an article on glaucoma by Albrecht von Graefe, which appeared in the Archiv für Ophthalmologie (Bd. 3, Abt. 2). Unfortunately, the manuscript is a fragment. The second gathering may have contained more text, before it was almost entirely cut out, leaving in place only its first two leaves.

205 Jaeger, Eduard, Ritter von Jaxtthal, 1818-1884.

Über die Einstellungen des dioptrischen Apparates im menschlichen Auge. Vienna: L. W. Seidel & Son; Paris: V. Masson, 1861.

viii, 283 p., V plates; 23 cm.

Published before either Donders’s (115) or Helmholtz’s (185) classic works on physiological optics, Jaeger’s book contained many new and important observations in the field of dioptrics. In his own book, Donders credits the work of A. von Graefe, Jaeger and Helmholtz as being the most influential in the formation of his own ideas.

Hirschberg §1241.

206 Jaeger, Eduard, Ritter von Jaxtthal, 1818-1884.

Ophthalmoskopischer Hand-Atlas. Vienna: Kaiserlich-königliche Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 1869.

[4], xviii, 236 p., XXIX plates; 27 cm.

Its clear verbal and graphic descriptions made this atlas one of the several most important ophthalmoscopic atlases to be published in the nineteenth century. The Hand-Atlas includes many views not contained in either the first or second editions of his Beiträge zur Pathologie des Auges (204 & 207). An English translation was published in 1890, and a second German edition in 1894.

Chance, p. 171; G-M 5904; Hirschberg §1032; Pybus 1070; Waller 5103.

207 Jaeger, Eduard, Ritter von Jaxtthal, 1818-1884.

Beiträge zur Pathologie des Auges. . . . Zweite Auflage. Vienna: Kaiserlich-königliche Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 1870.

[4], 223 p., LXXIII plates; 35 cm.

The second edition, published the same year as the last part of the first edition. The commentary and plates have been arranged in an entirely different numerical sequence than in the previous edition. Also, four plates present in the first edition have not been included here. A concordance of the plates in the Hand-Atlas (206) and in the two editions of the Beiträge zur Pathologie des Auges (1st ed., 204) follows the text.

Hirschberg §1240.

207.1 Jakob, Christfried, 1866-1956.

Atlas des gesunden und kranken Nerven-system, nebst Grundriss der Anatomie, Pathologie und Therapie desselben. Munich: J. F. Lehmann, 1895.

xxiii, [1]-26, [3], 33-89, (p. 39 misnumbered as 66), 78 plates; 197, [1], 10 p.: ill.; 18 cm.

A richly illustrated handbook on the nervous system and its diseases. The author, C. Jakob, practiced medicine in Bamberg, Germany, and was also an assistant at the medical clinic in Erlangen. He published several other works in the fields of physiology, pathology, and neurology, and his Atlas des gesunden und kranken Nervensystem went through two French and an English edition as well. In this first German edition, the color lithographs (by F. Reichhold) and the black and white woodcuts (by M. Toller) were made from Jakob’s original drawings and photographs. The first two plates—cross sections of the brain showing different layers with the aid of superimposed flaps—recall those published three hundred years earlier in Georg Bartisch’s Augendienst (34).

BM 114:401 (1896 English ed.); NUC 276:278.

Jallat, L. P., 1792-1864, ed.

See Weller (412).

208 Janin de Combe-Blanche, Jean, 1731-1799.

Mémoires et observations anatomiques, physio-logiques et physiques sur l’oeil, et sur les maladies qui affectent cet organe; avec un précis des opérations & des remedes qu’on doit pratiquer pour les guérir. Lyons: Perisse & Roche for P. F. Didot (Paris), 1772.

x1, 474, [6] p.; 20 cm. (8vo)

The eighteenth century was a period of significant scientific advances in ophthalmology and the heyday of ophthalmic quackery. The worlds of Jacques Daviel and the Chevalier Taylor are easily distinguishable; and yet, there was a great gray area inhabited by men such as Jean Janin who had the ability and inclination to move in and out of these two worlds of medical respectability and quackery. Janin, the charlatan, appears in the boastful advertisements which were published in Montpellier and Avignon in 1757 and 1760 and which Truc and Pansier have reprinted. However, he also published this valuable collection of memoirs which shows him to have been both a skilled surgeon and a careful observer. According to Hirsch (III:418) this book contains an account of the first experiments with glasses of complementary colors before both eyes. In the final section (p. 429-432) Janin gives the first published account of hypermetropia. Janin performed a cataract operation on the Duke of Modena who subsequently ennobled him under the name Combe-Blanche. The grateful nobleman also named Janin honorary professor at the University of Modena at an annual pension of 2,400 livres.

BOA II:53; Hirsch III:418; Hirschberg §378; Waller 5116; Wellcome III:345.

al-Jayyānī, Abū cAbd Allāh Muhammad ibn Mucādh, 11th cent.

See Alhazen (8).

209 Jeffries, Benjamin Joy, 1833-1915.

Enucleation of the eyeball. . . . Section of the ciliary nerves and optic nerve. . . . Some unnecessary causes of impaired vision. Boston: D. Clapp & Son, 1868.

[2], [281]-300, 6, 17 p.: ill.; 23 cm.

A collection of three papers, the first of which was originally read before the Massachussetts Medical Society, and the latter two previously published in the Boston Medical & Surgical Journal.

210 Jeffries, Benjamin Joy, 1833-1915.

The eye in health and disease: being a series of articles on the anatomy and physiology of the human eye, and its surgical and medical treatment. Boston: A. Moore, 1871.

119 p.: ill.; 24 cm.

Hirsch III:426.

211 Jeffries, Benjamin Joy, 1833-1915.

Color-blindness: its dangers and its detection. Boston: Houghton, Osgood & Co.; Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 1880 (c1879).

xvii, [1], 316 p., [1] plate: ill.; 20 cm.

The first monograph and significant contribution on color-blindness by an American author. At a time when European governments were already taking steps to guard against the occupational hazards of color-blindness, Jeffries was the only American voice to direct attention to the perils of color-blindness in railway engineers, ship’s pilots, etc. One of the earliest books on the subject, Jeffries draws heavily on the writings of his two most important predecessors, George Wilson (422) and Frithiof Holmgren (194.1). Appropriately, the book is bound in linen with broad horizontal bands of red, green and blue.

Hirsch III:426; Waller 5134.

Johannis de Casso, fl. 1346.

Tractatus de conservatione visus. Editus anno 1346. Publié pour la première fois d’après les manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris et de la Bibliothèque de Metz.

In Collectio ophthalmologica veterum auctorum (82), fasc. 1.

212 Jones, Thomas Wharton, 1808-1891.

A manual of the principles and practice of ophthalmic medicine and surgery. London: G. J. Palmer for J. Churchill, 1847.

xxxvi, [8], 570 p., 4 plates: ill.; 17 cm.

Jones, an outstanding English ophthalmologist and physiologist, failed to comprehend the value of a prototype ophthalmoscope which Charles Babbage showed him in 1847, four years before Helmholtz first introduced his instrument. Writing in 1854 in the British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review (14:549-557), Jones acknowledged Babbage’s invention and admitted his part in discouraging its development: “It is with justice that I should here state, however, that seven years ago Mr. Babbage showed me the model of an instrument which he had contrived for the purpose of looking into the interior of the eye.” Babbage (1792-1871) is remembered today not for his ophthalmoscope or his “analytical machine,” a mechanical computer which suffered a similar neglect, but for his “Table of Logarithms.”

An unattractive book typical of a series of stumpy thick octavo manuals brought out by John Churchill, Jones’s work stands at the watershed of old and new ophthalmology for it is the last English textbook published before the introduction of the ophthalmoscope. Cf. Charles Snyder, “Charles Babbage and his rejected ophthalmoscope,” Archives of Ophthalmology 71:591-593, (1964).

213 Jones, Thomas Wharton, 1808-1891.

The principles and practice of ophthalmic medicine and surgery. Edited by Isaac Hays. Philadelphia: T. K. & P. G. Collins for Lea & Blanchard, 1847.

xxxvi, [17]-509 p., 4 plates: ill.; 20 cm.

Both the English and American editions of 1847 contain an extended account of inflammation of the eye which illustrates Jones’s interest in pathology. This section disappeared from later editions as the introduction of the ophthalmoscope stripped the term of any specific meaning. A full biographical sketch of the author by Sir Rickman Godlee appeared in the British Journal of Ophthalmology 5 (3):97-117 and 5 (4): 145-156 (1921).

Hirschberg §671.

214 Juler, Henry Edward, 1866-1921.

A handbook of ophthalmic science and practice. Philadelphia: H. C. Lea’s Son & Co., 1884.

xv, [16]-467 p., [31] plates: ill.; 24 cm.

Juler was a London ophthalmologist with a successful practice on Cavendish Square. His Handbook became one of the standard ophthalmic textbooks of the period, going through three British and three American editions between 1884 and 1904. This is the first American edition, with additions by Charles A. Oliver of Philadelphia.

215 Jüngken, Johann Christian, 1793-1875.

Die Lehre von den Augenkrankheiten. Ein Handbuch zum Gebrauche bei Vorlesungen, und zum Selbstunterrichte für angehende Aerzte. Berlin: J. F. Starcke for Schüppel, 1832.

xx, 960 p.; 21 cm.

The author was a respected Berlin ophthalmologist who studied under and was an assistant to Carl Ferdinand Graefe. He was the first to perform an ophthalmic operation employing general anesthesia. A ten-page classified bibliography precedes the text of this work.

Hirschberg §487-488.

Jüngken, Johann Christian, 1793-1875.

See also Weiss (410.2).

215.1 Jung-Stilling, Johann Heinrich, 1740-1817.

Methode den grauen Staar auszuziehen und zu heilen, nebst einem Anhang von verschiedenen andern Augenkrankheiten und der Cur-Art derselben. Marburg: Neue Akademische Buchhandlung, 1791.

134, [2] p., 5 plates; 17 cm. (8vo)

A modification of the method of cataract extraction and the extremely good results which attended it are reported by the author who, at the time of publication, occupied the chair of economy, finance and statistical science at the University of Marburg. Jung, a contemporary and acquaintance of Goethe and Herder, continued his ophthalmology practice while holding this academic post and writing the novels and poems for which he is remembered. His life is well described in Goethe’s Dichtung und Wahrheit, and his biography was translated into English in 1938 by R. O. Moon (London: Foulis, 1938).

Hirschberg §421.

Jurin, James, 1684-1759.

“An essay upon distinct and indistinct vision.”

In Smith (345, 346).

216 Keck, Egidius Crato, respondent.

Dissertatio medica de ectropio. Vom überstülpten, umgekehrten Auglitt, oder Plarr-Aug. Accedunt, in praefatione, de cataracta membranacea observationes . . . . Praeside . . . Johanne Zellero . . . publice defendet Autor & respondens Egidius Crato Keck. Tübingen: G. F. Pflicke, 1733.

28 p.; 20 cm. (4to)

A thesis on ectropium, the eversion or turning out of the edge of the eyelid. Hirschberg (§413) points out that it was actually written by the famous ophthalmologist B. D. Mauchart. It introduces the term “entropium” for the inversion of the edge of the eyelid, crediting J. T. Woolhouse, Mauchart’s teacher, with the distinction between the two conditions.

Hirschberg §43, No. 4.

216.1 Kepler, Johannes, 1571-1630.

Ad Vitellionem paralipomena, quibus astronomiae pars optica traditur; potissimùm de artificiosa observatione et aestimatione diametrorum deliquiorum[que]; solis & lunae. Cum exemplis insignium eclipsium. Habes hoc libro, lector, inter alia multa noua, tractatum luculentum de modo visionis, & humorum oculi vsu, contra opticos & anatomicos. Frankfurt am Main: C. Marnius and heirs of J. Aubrius, 1604.

[14], 449, [19] p., [3] plates (2 folding): ill.; 20 cm. (4to)

“The physical theory of vision, which might be styled the ground-bass [sic] of ophthalmology, owes its development mainly to the work of great astronomers and physicists. The Ad Vitellionem paralipomena, of the astronomer Kepler (Frankfort, 1604), contains a treatise on vision and the human eye in which is shown for the first time how the retina is essential to sight, the part the lens plays in refraction, and that the convergence of luminous rays before reaching the retina is the cause of myopia” (Garrison, p. 260). The volume includes an index and printed marginal notes, as well as several geometrical figures and tables. It is decorated with floriated initials and head-pieces; its pages 395 and 412 are misnumbered “359” and “417.” The Becker Library’s copy is bound in its original vellum binding.

Kepler made several other contributions to optics. He introduced the terms “prism,” “lens,” “meniscus,” and many others, computed the angle of incidence of light, and explained the formation of a rainbow. Gorin notes that “it is remarkable that he created the whole system of optics in the eye with one pair of lenses” (p. 34).

BM 122:344; Chance, p. 45; Garrison, p. 260; Hirschberg §308; Krivatsy 6343; NUC 294:54.

217 Kircher, Athanasius, 1602-1680.

Ars magna lucis et umbrae in decem libros digesta. Quibus admirandae lucis et umbrae in mundo, atque adeò universa natura, vires effectusq. uti nova, ita varia novorum reconditiorumq. speciminum exhibitione, ad varios mortalium usus, pandantur. Rome: H. Scheus, 1646.

[40], 411, 404-405, 414-568, 567-935, [15] p., 39 plates: ill.; 31 cm.

One of the most remarkable intellectual figures of the seventeenth century, Kircher at different periods held professorships of Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, mathematics and philosophy, while simultaneously carrying on his intensive investigations into Egyptian hieroglyphics, geography, astronomy, optics, acoustics, medicine and orientology. He was the author of forty-four authoritative works on all these subjects.

The Ars magna lucis et umbrae is regarded by many as the most important of Kircher’s encyclopedic works. It contains important observations on the nature of light, lenses, astronomy and related topics. It also includes early descriptions of the camera obscura and the magic lantern. The text is illustrated with numerous woodcuts. The thirty-nine leaves of copperplate engravings typify the quality of illustration found in so many of Kircher’s works. A second edition was published at Amsterdam in 1671.

BOA I:113; DicSciBio VII:375-76; Hirsch III:529; Wellcome III:394.

Kirmisson, Edouard, 1848-1927, ed.

See Panas (287).

218 Kitchiner, William, 1775?-1827.

The economy of the eyes: precepts for the improvement and preservation of the sight. Plain rules which will enable all to judge exactly when, and what spectacles are best calculated for their eyes, observations on opera glasses and theatres, and an account of the pancratic magnifier, for double stars, and day telescopes. London: Hurst, Robinson, & Co., 1824.

viii, 246 p., [2] plates; 18 cm.

The son of a wealthy London coal merchant, Kitchiner’s medical degree from Glasgow assured that he would never have to practice in London, where he opted to settle after receiving his inheritance. A renowned gourmet, Kitchiner’s lunches and dinners were famous. His culinary experiences resulted in his best known work, Apicius redivivus, or, the cook’s oracle. Describing itself as “a culinary code for the rational epicure,” this work went through at least twenty editions between 1817 and 1855. The present work, the fruit of the author’s avid interest in optics, is a popular work on lenses and the hygiene of the eye. A German translation was made in 1825. In 1826 a second edition appeared, followed in the same year by a sequel, The economy of the eyes. Part II.

Knapp, Arnold Herman, b. 1869, trans.

See Oeller (278)

219 Knapp, Herman, 1832-1911.

A treatise on intraocular tumours. From original clinical observations and anatomical investigations. . . . Translated by S. Cole. New York: W. Wood & Co., 1869.

xii, [17]-323 p., XVI plates; 23 cm.

A translation of one of Knapp’s most important works, Die intraocularen Geschwülste (Karlsruhe, 1868). Knapp has been described by Burton Chance as “perhaps the most remarkable figure in American ophthalmology.” He was born in Germany, and began his medical studies the same year Helmholtz published his description of the ophthalmoscope. Admitted to the medical faculty at Heidelberg, Knapp established its first eye clinic, and later succeeded Chelius as professor of ophthalmology. In 1868 Knapp emigrated to America, where he established the New York Ophthalmic and Aural Institute, modelled upon von Graefe’s clinic in Berlin. The year after he arrived in New York, Knapp founded, with Salomon Moos, the Archiv für Augen- und Ohrenheilkunde and its simultaneously published English version.

219.1 Knapp, Herman, 1832-1911.

Cocaine and its use in ophthalmic and general surgery . . . with supplementary contributions by Drs. F. H. Bosworth, R. J. Hall, E. L. Keyes, H. Knapp and Wm. M. Polk. New York; London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1885.

[4], 87 p.; 23 cm.

Knapp’s treatise on the use of cocaine as a local anesthetic was originally published in the Archives of Ophthalmology (December, 1884). It “includes his own translation of Carl Koller’s second account of Koller’s discovery of the uses of cocaine in ophthalmic surgery, first published in vol. 34 of the Wien. Med. Wochenschrift on 25 October [cols. 1276-78] and 1 November 1884 [cols. 1309-11]” (Norman 1224).

BM 124:610 (1883 ed.); G-M 5678; Hirsch III:556; Norman 1224; NUC 299:692; Waller 5322.

219.2 Kranichfeld, Friedrich Wilhelm Georg, 1789-1850.

Anthropologische Uebersicht der gesammten Ophthalmiatrie; nebst einer anthropologischen Zusammenstellung der Augenkrankheiten und Grundzüge der anthropologischen Methode, sie zu heilen. Berlin: J. Naumann, 1841.

[2], xv, [1], 158, [2] p.; 22 cm.

A summary of ophthalmiatrics systematized from an anthropological perspective. The diseases of the eye and their different treatments are organized in a chart, and then in chapters and several levels of sub-chapters and sub-divisions. The whole system is very complicated and subjectively arranged, or—as Hirschberg pointed out—“deranged.” According to Hirschberg, some of Kranichfeld’s “students thought that he was somewhat deranged . . . [and] when trying to read his Ophthalmiatrie, one is inclined to share their opinion” (§485).

F. W. G. Kranichfeld practiced in Vienna, then was physician to the Austrian Embassy in Constantinople, and later to the imperial Russian court. He was appointed professor at the University of Berlin and founded a private institute for ophthalmic outpatients in the University building. In 1834 he established another private hospital named Hygiocomium.

AmEncOph IX:6870; Hirsch III:601; Hirschberg §485; NUC 305:329.

Küfner, Johann, ed.

See Vittori (391).

219.3 Kühne, Willy, 1837-1900.

Lehrbuch der physiologischen Chemie. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 1868.

viii, 605 p.: ill.; 23 cm.

A general textbook on physiological chemistry published as one of the earliest works of W. Kühne. It appeared in the year when he was appointed professor of physiology at the University of Amsterdam.

Hirsch III:627; Hirschberg §1154; NUC 308:43; Pagel, col. 922-923.

220 Kühne, Willy, 1837-1900.

Zur Photochemie der Netzhaut. Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1877.

14 p.; 24 cm.

This paper was originally read before the Naturhistorisch-medicinische Vereins zu Heidelberg on the 5th of January, 1877, and published in the society’s Verhandlungen (I:484-92) the same year. The significance of this paper is explained in the annotation to the next entry (221). Kühne succeeded Helmholtz to the chair of physiology at Heidelberg in 1871.

221 Kühne, Willy, 1837-1900.

Ueber den Sehpurpur. Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1878?.

89 p., 1 plate; 24 cm.

“In 1876 Boll had established that the layer of rods of the retina contain a purple pigment that disappears on exposure to light. On this basis Kühne supposed that there was a primarily chemical process that preceded excitation of the optic nerves. He demonstrated that the retina works like a photographic plate, with light bleaching out the visual purple, which is regenerated in darkness. He succeeded in producing his famous ‘optograms’—the reproduction of the pattern of crossbars of a window on the chemical substance of the retina of a rabbit. . . . Kühne was thus the first to perceive the migrating pigments in the living retina” (DicSciBio VII:520).

A separately printed offprint of an article which was published with his Zur Photochemie der Netzhaut (220) in the Untersuchungen aus dem physiologischen Institute der Universität Heidelberg (Bd. I, Heft 1, p. 1-14 [Netzhaut], p. 15-103 [Sehpurpur]) in 1878. Together they represent Kühne’s earliest complete statement regarding his researches on rhodopsin. Both papers were again published together in an English translation in 1878.

Kürner, Georg Andreas, respondent.

“De lapsu palpebrae superioris.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 3:229-277.

Küssmaul, Adolf, 1822-1902.

See Selected monographs (338.1).

221.1 La Caille, Nicolas Louis de, 1713-1762.

Leçons elementaires d’optique. Paris: Guerin Brothers, 1750.

[8], 119, [1] p., [4] folding plates: ill.; 19 cm. (8vo)

The rare first edition of a textbook on basic optics by the French mathematician and astronomer, Nicolas de la Caille. La Caille was professor of mathematics at Collège Mazarin, Paris and published several works on astronomy, physics, trigonometry, and geometry. From 1741 he was a member of the Académie des Sciences, and between 1750 and 1753 he participated in an expedition to the Cape of Good Hope to carry out astronomical mensurations.

Leçons élémentaire was translated into Latin and went through at least five editions during the eighteenth century. It discusses the principles and properties of light, vision, color, and perspective; the laws of dioptrics and catoptrics; as well as the theory of telescopes and microscopes.

BM 128:210 (1756 ed.); BOA II:58 (1766 French and Latin eds.); NUC 310:328 (1756, 1764, 1766 eds.); Poggendorff I:1338; Wellcome III:329, 424 (1756, 1757, 1764 eds.).

222 Lacepiera, Petrus, d. 1306.

Libro de locchio morale et spirituale vulgare. Venice: Joannes Rubeus Vercellensis, 21 May, 1496.

[64] leaves; 22 cm. (4to)

An Italian translation of the second earliest printed work on the eye, Grassus’s De oculis (1474) being the first. Often ascribed to the English Franciscan John Peckham, it seems established now that the author of this text was Peter of Limoges, canon of Evreux, who flourished at the Sorbonne in Paris in the late thirteenth century and is named in the colophon. Sarton writes: “The purpose of the De oculo morali is purely ethical but it contains a description of the eye, together with a brief account of eye diseases and their treatment” (Sarton II:1029). The work is translated into Italian by Fra Teofilo Romano. A title page woodcut depicts a monk preaching to a group of disciples and pointing to his eye.

BM 15th c. 5:419; Goff J393; Hain 9805.

223 La Chambre, Marin Cureau de, 1594-1669.

La lumière. Paris: P. Rocolet, 1657.

[20], 64, 67-368, 379-414, [l0] p.: ill.; 25 cm. (4to)

“Ainsi, toute la théorie de Démocrite sur les corpuscules ou atomes lucides, se retrouve dans un traité de la lumière” (Nouvelle biographie générale XXVIII:504). La Chambre’s principal work on optics, in which he discusses the nature of light, the origin of colors, refractions, etc. Largely ignored by historians, this work was nonetheless consulted by such figures as Grimaldi and Huygens.

224 La Chambre, Marin Cureau de, 1594-1669.

Nouvelles observations et conjectures sur l’iris. Paris: J. Langlois for J. d’Allin, 1662.

[8], 340, [6] p.: ill.; 24 cm. (4to)

The author, one of the founders of the Académie des Sciences, physician to Louis XIII and XIV, and a celebrated physiognomist, was held to be an acute judge of character. A secret correspondence on this subject was initiated with him by Louis XIV and conducted for several years. This volume is an optical treatise which deals with rainbows, the origin and nature of colors, and the refraction of light. The properties of colors are related to the theory of harmonics in music.

225 La Charrière, Joseph de, fl. 1680.

Nouvelles operations de chirurgie: contenant leurs causes fondées sur la structure de la partie, leurs signes, leurs simptomes & leur explication; avec plusieurs observations. Et une idée generale des playes. Paris: D. Horthemels, 1692.

[24], 331 p.; 13 cm. (12mo)

Little is known of the life of Joseph de La Charrière beyond what is recorded in his two books, though from the preface it is apparent that he quarrelled with a Mr. Du***, probably Joseph Guichard Duverney (1648-1730), professor of anatomy in Paris. The present work enjoyed a degree of popularity, went through many editions, and was translated into German (1700) and English (1705). The author presents a description of the disease in each case and the surgical procedure necessary to cure it, but he gives no details of the operations. Cataract was attributed to a small pellicle which detached itself from the crystalline lens, thickened, floated into the aqueous humor and was rendered opaque. This was a common understanding of cataract in the late seventeenth century. La Charrière borrowed heavily from both the writings of Duverney and the surgical lectures which Dionis (111) presented at the Jardin-du-Roi from 1672 to 1680.

Hirschberg §328; Wellcome II:425.

226 La Charrière, Joseph de, fl. 1680.

Anatomie nouvelle de la tête de l’homme, et de ses dépendances; avec l’usage de ses parties, suivant leurs structure et la physique moderne. Paris: Widow of D. Hortemels, 1703.

[20], 436 p., 2 plates; 16 cm. (12mo)

An anatomy of virtually every part of the human head. Pages 267 to 352 are devoted to the anatomy of the eye and the physiology of vision, including a discussion of the nature of light, the perception of color and the correction of visual defects by lenses. Both copperplate engravings in the volume illustrate this section.

Blake, p. 250; Hirsch I:890.

La Faye, Georges de, 1669-1781.

“Pour servir à perfectionner la nouvelle méthode de faire l’opération de la cataracte.”

In Académie Royale de Chirurgie, Mémoires (2).

La Forest (de).

“Nouvelle méthode de traiter les maladies du sac lacrymal, nommées communement, fistules lacrymales.”

In Académie Royale de Chirurgie, Mémoires (2).

227 Lambert, Johann Heinrich, 1728-1777.

Les proprietés remarquables de la route de la lumière, par les airs et en general par plusieurs milieux refringens spheriques et concentriques, avec la solution des problèms, qui y ont du rapport, comme sont les refractions astronomiques et terrestres, et ce qui en depend. The Hague: N. van Daalen, 1759.

116 p., 2 plates; 20 cm. (8vo)

The first published work of this famous Alsatian scientist whose later researches in the field of photometry provided a scientific basis for the measurement of light. This work contains important researches on the refraction of light, including atmospheric refraction, which greatly influenced Arago in his researches on polarization. Cf. Steck, Max. “Ein unbekannter Brief von Johann Heinrich Lambert und Johannes Gessner [Johann Rudolf Iselin],” Gesnerus 8:245-248 (1951) and 11:36-40 (1954).

Hirschberg §452.

Lancisi, Giovanni Maria, 1654-1720.

“Dissertationes duae anatomico-medicae: . . . De vena sine pari; altera De gangliis nervorum.”

In Morgagni (263).

227.1 Landi, Pasquale, 1817-1895.

Della ottalmia catarrale epidemica nelle milizie austriache stanziate in Firenze. Florence: M. Cecchi, 1850.

96, [4] p., 2 color plates; 22 cm.

A treatise on a catarrhal ophthalmia epidemic among the Austrian militia stationed in Florence in 1849. The work was written by the Italian surgeon Pasquale Landi. Born in Porrona, Landi received his doctoral degree in Siena in 1841. He first practiced surgery in Florence, then was a professor at the surgical clinic in Siena, and later the director of the surgical clinics of Bologna and Pisa. He was the first in Italy to perform a successful ovariotomy operation. Della ottalmia is Landi’s only ophthalmological publication, which he dedicated to Antonio Scarpa.

AmEncOph IX:7006 (1851 ed.); Hirsch III:660 (1851 ed.); NUC 314:101.

228 Landolt, Edmund, 1846-1926.

The refraction and accommodation of the eye and their anomalies. . . . Translated, under the author’s supervision, by C. M. Culver. Edinburgh: Y. J. Pentland, 1886.

xi, [3], 600 p.: ill.; 24 cm.

Swiss born, Landolt studied at Zurich and later worked in physiological optics with Snellen and Donders at Utrecht, where he doubtless laid much of the groundwork on which the present volume is based. Landolt’s eye clinic on the Rue Saint-André-des-Arts was world famous. With Panas and Poncet he founded the Archives d’ophtalmologie in 1881.

BOA I:119; Fischer II:856; Hirschberg §1273.

Landolt, Edmond, 1846-1926, jt. author.

See Wecker (408.1).

229 Langenbeck, Bernhard Rudolph Conrad von, 1810-1887.

De retina. Observationes anatomico-pathologicae. Göttingen: Dieterich, 1836.

x, [2], 188 p., 4 plates; 25 cm.

The publication of this “Habilitationschrift” marked Langenbeck’s admission as an unsalaried university lecturer (“Privatdozent”) at Göttingen. The significance of this work to ophthalmology is the author’s microscopic proof that retinal neoplasms consist essentially of a hyperplasia of the normal retinal cells.

Hirschberg §484.

Langenbeck, Konrad Johann Martin, 1775-1851, ed.

See Neue Bibliothek (272.1).

L’Armessin, Nicholas de, III, 1640-1725, engr.

See Print 4.

Lasseré, François, 1613-1697.

See Chérubin d’Orléans (75.1).

230 Lattier de Laroche, Thomas Michel Antoine Amédée de, 1785-1836.

Mémoire sur la cataracte, et guérison de cette maladie, sans opération chirurgicale. 2. éd., augm. de neuf nouvelles observations. Paris: Carpentier-Méricourt for the author, Delaunay & Béchet, 1833.

236 p.; 22 cm.

Bound with Lattier de Laroche (231).

A summary view of the anatomy of the eye and the nature of cataract precedes forty-eight case histories of the medical treatment and proclaimed cure of numerous forms of cataract. The author reveals none of the details of his medical secrets in these cases.

231 Lattier de Laroche, Thomas Michel Antoine Amédée de, 1785-1836.

Suite au mémoire sur la cataracte, et guérison de cette maladie sans opération chirurgicale. Tome deuxième. Paris: F. Malteste & Co. for the author, Delaunay & Béchet, 1835.

xvi, 204 p.; 22 cm.

Bound with Lattier de Laroche (230).

The benefits of the author’s secret medical treatment of cataract are extolled and forty-three additional cases are presented, but details of this charlatan’s secret cure remain unrevealed.

Lawrence, Sir William, 1783-1867.

See also Neue Bibliothek (272.1).

231.1 Lawrence, Sir William, 1783-1867.

A treatise on the venereal diseases of the eye. London: J. Wilson, 1830.

xiii, [1], 337, [1] p.; 23 cm.

Provenance: Inscribed “Dr. Bethune, with the author’s compliments.”

A treatise on “the nature, symptoms, and treatment of venereal diseases affecting the eye, including gonorrheal inflammation of the conjunctiva, the external tunics, and the iris, [as well as] syphilitic diseases of the eye” (BOA I:124). Hirschberg considered it the first monograph on the subject. A German edition was published in 1831.

William Lawrence was a student of Abernethy, then prosector at St. Batholomew’s Hospital, London. In 1817 he became director of the London Ophthalmic Hospital, Moorfields (according to Gorin, the first special eye hospital in the world, founded in 1805). Lawrence, dubbed by some “Nestor of British surgery,” was a prolific writer, a noted lecturer, and a member of several prestigious societies. He was also active in politics and was knowledgeable in foreign languages and literature. His work on natural history (Lectures on physiology, zoology, and the natural history of man) was controversial for advocating the doctrine of evolution.

BM 132:35; BOA I:124; Dawson 4076; Gorin, p. 75; Hirsch III:700; Hirschberg §359; NUC 319:511; RoyMedSoc I:691; Wellcome III:462.

232 Lawrence, Sir William, 1783-1867.

A treatise on the diseases of the eye. Washington: D. Green for the Register & Library of Medical & Chirurgical Science, 1834.

xii, 582 p.; 22 cm.

“This comprehensive work marks an epoch in ophthalmic surgery” (G-M 5849). It is based on lectures delivered by Lawrence at the London Ophthalmic Hospital. In 1819 Lawrence succeeded Abernethy as lecturer on surgery at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital where he contributed significantly to the advancement of eye surgery.

G-M 5849; Hirschberg §637.

233 Lawrence, Sir William, 1783-1867.

A treatise on the diseases of the eye. A new edition. Edited, with numerous additions . . . by Isaac Hays. Philadelphia: T. K. & P. G. Collins for Lea & Blanchard, 1847.

xxxii, 33-55, [1], 49-858, [2] p., 12 plates: ill.; 24 cm.

The second Lea and Blanchard edition edited by Isaac Hays, a famous American ophthalmologist, who also edited the American Journal of Medical Sciences for over fifty-two years.

Hirschberg §637.

233.1 Lawson, George, 1831-1903.

Injuries of the eye, orbit, and eyelids: their immediate and remote effects. London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1867.

xiv, 430 p.: ill.; 22 cm.

A systematic description of injuries of the visual apparatus and their treatment. The work discusses topics including injuries from burns, scalds, and chemical agents, as well as penetrating wounds, gunshot wounds, traumatic cataract, capsular opacities, dislocation of the lens, and treatment of foreign bodies in the eye. The volume is illustrated with almost one hundred fine woodcuts. An American edition of this book also appeared in 1867. Lawson wrote another successful work on the subject, entitled Diseases and injuries of the eye, which went through five editions in less than twenty years.

Student and assistant to the famous surgeon, W. Fergusson, George Lawson started his practice in London in 1856. He became a surgeon and an instructor of surgery at the Middlesex Hospital and later at Moorfields Hospital. Achieving a great reputation as an ophthalmologist, he became surgeon oculist to Queen Victoria in 1886, and received many other honors.

BM 132:61; BOA I:124; Hirsch III:701; Hirschberg §650; NUC 319:581.

234 Le Cat, Claude Nicolas, 1700-1768.

Traité des sens. Nouvelle éd., corr., augm., & enrichie de figures en taille douce. Amsterdam: J. Wetstein, 1744.

[16], 328 p., 19 plates; 20 cm. (8vo)

Le Cat, a prominent French surgeon, better known for his surgical ability than as a writer in the field of ophthalmology, so consistently won the prizes offered by the Académie de Chirurgie in Paris that the members of that society felt obliged to beg him not to compete anymore so as not to intimidate others. The present work, illustrated by an unusual set of anatomical plates, treats the anatomy and physiology of the sense organs in a philosophical context.

Hirschberg §330; Wellcome III:468.

Le Cerf, Christoph, 1696-1755, trans.

See Woolhouse (423).

235 Le Clerc, Sébastien, 1637-1714.

Discours touchant le point de veue, dans lequel il est prouvé que les choses qu’on voit distinctement, ne sont veu's qu d’un oeil. Paris: T. Jolly, 1679.

[12], 86, [2] p., [1] plate: ill.; 15 cm. (12mo)

An unusual work on the physiology of vision, with special regard to its implications for artistic perspective. A well-known engraver and geometrician, Le Clerc was professor of perspective at the Académie Royale de Peinture for thirty years. During this period he produced an estimated 4,000 different copperplate engravings. His explanations in this treatise are illustrated with twenty-four engravings of his own devising. Later editions were published at Paris under the title Système de la vision in 1712 and 1719.

Le Dran, Henri François, 1685-1770.

“Sur un oeil éraillé.”

In Académie Royale de Chirurgie, Mémoires (2).

235.1 Lefébure de Saint-Ildephont, Guillaume Réné, baron, 1744-1809.

Histoire anatomique, physiologique et optique de l’oeil. Pour servir d’introduction aux autres ouvrages sur les maladies et les opérations des yeux, du même auteur, et d’examen à ceux qui se destinent à cette pratique. Paris; Strasbourg: A. Koenig, 1803.

xii, 252 p.; 21 cm. (8vo)

Medical doctor, military officer, historian, and literary author, Lefébure was the city physician of Versailles, where he also lectured on syphilitic diseases and obstetrics. Later he served as court physician to Louis XVIII. He fled the Revolution in 1790 and continued to practice and teach in Holland, Germany, Italy, and Hungary. During the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 he joined the French army, and died of typhoid fever in the same year.

This general work on ophthalmology is one of Lefébure’s medical writings, which form only a small part of his multidisciplinary oeuvre. Hirschberg does not discuss this work specifically, but after listing Lefébure’s medical publications, he points out several examples of nonsense in them and considers the author a “bombastic quack . . . [and an] imposter.”

BiogMed V:564; Hirsch III:720; Hirschberg §480; NUC 323:385.

235.2 Lehnberg, Carl.

Tal om optiken, hållit för Kongl[iga] Vetensk[aps] Academien. Stockholm: L. Salvius, 1756.

[2], 32 p.; 19 cm. (8vo)

An address on optics delivered by Carl Lehnberg on the 28th of August, 1756, when he became a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Stockholm.

Leincker, Johann Sigismund, 1724-1780, defendant.

See Heister (184).

Leonides, 1st cent.

See Aetius, of Amida (5).

Levistal, Alfred, 1838-1874, ed.

See Verdet (386.1).

236 Liebreich, Richard, 1830-1917.

Atlas der Ophthalmoscopie. Darstellung des Augengrundes im gesunden und krankhaften Zustande enthaltend 12 Tafeln mit 59 Figuren in Farbendruck, nach der Natur gemalt und erläutert . . . . Dritte Auflage. Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1885.

[2], viii, 31 p., XII plates; 35 cm.

The first atlas of the fundus and one of the most important ophthalmoscopical atlases of the nineteenth century. In the preface to the first edition Liebreich states that it was from Helmholtz himself that he first learned of the ophthalmoscope in 1851. It was while an assistant at von Graefe’s Berlin clinic (1854-62) that Liebreich took his initial steps in the practical application of the new instrument, resulting in the present work. The twelve lithographic plates are after Liebreich’s own paintings, and were first published at Berlin in 1863. Although more than a hundred textbooks and atlases of ophthalmoscopy were to appear in the nineteenth century, the unusually detailed and comprehensive accuracy of Liebreich’s work assured it a lasting place both in nineteenth century practice and in the history of ophthalmoscopic literature. The text of this third edition is identical with that of the previous edition; the quality of the plates, however, is improved. “A comparison of the illustrations of the third edition with those in both former ones shows evidence of advances in the technique of color printing: the backgrounds of the fundi are more luminous, the vessels and hemorrhages of a more natural transparent blood color, the blood deposits have a much deeper hue” (Paul Tower, “Richard Liebreich and his atlas of ophthalmoscopy,” Arch. of Ophth. 65:792).

In 1862 Liebreich migrated to Paris where he remained until the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. From 1871 to 1878 he was ophthalmic surgeon at St. Thomas Hospital in London. His career may be said to have culminated with the publication of this atlas. After his return to Paris in 1878, Liebreich continued his private practice, but devoted an increasing amount of time to the serious study of painting. He died in Paris in 1917.

Hirsch III:782; Hirschberg §1032.

237 Littell, Squier, 1803-1886.

A manual of the diseases of the eye. Philadelphia: J. Van Court for J. S. Littell, 1837.

xiv, [2], 255 p.; 20 cm.

The third American book on diseases of the eye, preceded only by the monographs by Frick (142) and Gibson (153), this work is based on the author’s experience in Philadelphia’s Wills Hospital and in private practice. “At a time when Lord Jeffrey sneeringly asked, ‘Who reads an American book?’ it received the honor of republication in England a year after it came out here” (A.D. Hall, “Memoir of Squire Littell, M.D.” Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 3. ser., 9: [cdxlix]-cdlx [1887]). The London edition of 1838 was edited by Hugh Houston, one of England’s most eminent surgeons. Cf. Burton Chance, “Squier Littell, M.D.” Annals of Medical History 1:50-56 (1929).

Hirschberg §748.

237.1 Littrow, Joseph Johann, Edler von, 1781-1840.

Dioptrik, oder Anleitung zur Verfertigung der Fernröhre. Vienna: J. B. Wallishausser, 1830.

xviii, 494 p., 2 folding plates: tables; 22 cm.

Provenance: Jakob Merz (inscription).

After having been professor of astronomy at the Universities of Crakow (Poland) and Kazan (Russia), Joseph Littrow was appointed co-director of the observatory in Pest (Hungary) in 1816. From 1819 he was professor of astronomy at the University of Vienna, where he directed the local observatory. He was knighted by the Emperor of Austria in 1837.

Littrow published numerous works on astronomy, geometry, chronometry, and physics, and he wrote a few works on optics as well. This volume is an optical handbook discussing the theory of objectives, telescopes, mirrors, and microscopes. The last chapter is a comprehensive history of optics from ancient Greece to the 1810s.

BM 138:819; NUC 336:368.

237.2 Lloyd, Humphrey, 1800-1881.

A treatise on light and vision. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1831.

xxx, [2], 402 p.: ill.; 23 cm.

Bound with publisher’s catalog (16 p.) dated May, 1833.

A comprehensive work on optics containing in three parts: 1. the theory of simple or homogeneous light and the principles of reflection and refraction; 2. the theory of compound or solar light, the dispersion of light, and the phenomena of colors; 3. the laws of vision, the description of the human eye, and the principles of optical instruments, such as lenses, telescopes, and microscopes. The author, Humphrey Lloyd, was the provost of Trinity College, Dublin. He published several works on topics in physics, especially on magnetism and the properties of light.

BM 140:367; BOA I:127; NUC 337:218.

238 Losen de Seltenhoff, Edouard de.

La macrobiotique des yeux ou l’art de conserver la vue jusqu’a l’age le plus avancé, précédé d’un coup d’oeil historique sur l’ophthalmologie, et suivi: 1º d’une note sur les mouches volantes; 2º des expériences de Sir Everard Home sur les changements qu’éprouve la cornée pour s’adapter aux divers degrés de vision; 3º de considérations pratiques sur l’exploration des yeux malades; 4º du traitement de l’ophthalmie par la méthode hydriatrique. Brussels: Société Encyclographique . . . de Mortier, 1841.

xxxix, [1], 300 p.; 23 cm.

A popular work on the hygiene of the eyes drawn largely from the writings of Beer, Weller, Jungken, Carron du Villards, and Reveillé-Parise, described elsewhere in this catalogue. The author divides his treatise into four sections and treats the structure of the eye; light and the physiology of vision; rules to maintain the eye in health; the regimen for weak eyesight; and the care of diseased eyes. A brief review of the history of ophthalmology precedes the body of the work.

Hirschberg §470; Waller 6023.

Louis, Antoine, 1723-1792.

“Mémoire sur plusieurs maladies du globe de l’oeil; où l’on examine particulièrement les cas qui exigent l’extirpation de cet organe, & la méthode d’y procéder.”

In Académie Royale de Chirurgie, Mémoires (2).

Louis, Antoine, 1723-1792.

“Précis historique de la doctrine des auteurs sur l’opération qu’ils ont proposee pour remédier au renversement des paupières.”

In Académie Royale de Chirurgie, Mémoires (2).

Louis, Antoine, 1723-1792.

“Réflexions sur l’opération de la fistule lacrymale.”

In Académie Royale de Chirurgie, Mémoires (2).

239 Lusardi, Christophe Mathieu, b. 1778.

Traité de l’alteration du cristallin et de ses annexes; précédé d’un précis sur l’anatomie de l’oeil, et suivi de l’extrait d’un mémoire inédit sur la pupille artificielle. Paris: J. Roger (Lyons) for Menard & Desenne, and Million (Lyons), 1819.

xii, 220 p., [1] plate; 20 cm. (8vo)

The operation of depression for cataract is advanced as superior to that of extraction by this Parisian oculist of Italian origin. Lusardi received medical degrees from both Duisburg and Montpellier and studied for a time at Pavia under Scarpa, one of the foremost exponents of the extraction procedure.

Hirschberg §352; Wellcome III:561

240 Mackenzie, Sir Stephen, 1844-1909.

Retinal haemorrhages and melanaemia as symptoms of ague. London: Pardon

16 p.: ill.; 21 cm.

The brother of Morrell Mackenzie, the author was a dermatologist and ophthalmologist of considerable importance. This work was originally published in the Medical Times and Gazette.

241 Mackenzie, William, 1791-1868.

A practical treatise on the diseases of the eye. London: E. Khull & Son (Glasgow) for Longman, 1830.

xvi, 861 p.; 23 cm.

“In this book, Mackenzie, one of the foremost ophthalmologists of his time, included a classical description of the symptomatology of glaucoma, and was probably the first to draw attention to the increase of intra-ocular pressure as a characteristic of the condition. He introduced the term ‘asthenopia’, and was the first to describe sympathetic ophthalmia as a distinct disease” (G-M 5848). Mackenzie’s work in ophthalmology is commemorated today by the William Mackenzie Medal awarded by the University of Glasgow. Many of the books in this collection were once part of Mackenzie’s own library.

G-M 5848; Hirschberg §680-683.

242 Magne, Pierre Alexandre Charles, 1818-1887.

Hygiène de la vue, ou conseils sur la conservation et l’amélioration des yeux, s’addressant a toutes les classes de la société et en particulier aux mères de famille, aux hommes d’état, aux gens de lettres et a toutes les personnes qui se livrent aux travaux de cabinet. Paris: A. Bailly for the author & Truchy, 1847.

[6], [ll]-323 p.; 21 cm.

A popular work on the care and hygiene of the eyes and the preservation of vision, introduced by a summary view of the history of French ophthalmology and a somewhat jingoistic examination of the German school with particular reference to the theories of Beer (37-40).

Hirschberg §575.

243 Maître-Jan, Antoine, 1650-1730.

Traité des maladies de l’oeil et des remedes propres pour leur guerison. Enrichy de plusieurs experiences de physique. Troyes: J. Le Febvre, 1707.

[14], 580, 561-573, [1] p.; 25 cm. (4to)

“Called the Father of French ophthalmology, Maître-Jan energetically supported Brisseau’s doctrine [(163)], ensuring its acceptance. As far back as 1692 Maître-Jan had proved that the opaque lens is cataract, but before Brisseau’s work appeared it had been regarded as a sort of skin or pellicle immediately inside the capsule of the lens” (G-M 5824). Maître-Jan called glaucoma a false cataract and never having dissected a glaucomatous eye, he viewed it as a disease of the lens. The present copy appears to be an unrecorded state of the first edition with a completely reset title page, clearly conjugate with leaf a4, and not a cancel. The work was published simultaneously in Rouen.

G-M 5824; Hirschberg §327; Waller 5824.

244 Maître-Jan, Antoine, 1650-1730.

Traité des maladies de l’oeil, et des remedes propres pour leur guérison; enrichi de plusieurs expériences de physique. Paris: Widow of L. d’Houry, 1740.

x, 554 p.; 17 cm. (12mo)

“The use of chemical fixatives was elaborated by the great French ophthalmologist, Antoine Maître-Jan (1650-1730), who thereby was able to dispel many misconceptions such as that the lens and vitreous were fluid humours which clotted after death, and to demonstrate the onion-like structure of the former and the fibrous-fluid consistency of the latter” (Duke-Elder 2:41).

Hirschberg §327.

244.1 Malus, Étienne Louis, 1775-1812.

Théorie de la double réfraction. S.l.: s.n., 1811.

303-508 p., 3 folding plates: ill.; 26 cm. (4to)

“An important memoir, which was awarded the prize of the French Institute, enlarging and treating mathematically the author’s discovery of polarization by reflection” (BOA I:136). This copy of the Théorie is extracted from Mémoires de l’Institut des Sciences, no. 2 (1811), but the work was published in book format as well (Paris: Garnery, 1810).

The author, Étienne Malus, started his career in military engineering and during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars served with the French army in Egypt and Germany. In 1809 he returned to Paris and devoted himself to optical research. His discovery of the polarization of light by reflection was first published in his paper, Sur une propriété de la lumière réfléchie par les corps diaphanes (Bull. Soc. Philomat. I:16) in 1809.

BM 151:331 (1810 ed.); BOA I:136 (1810 ed.); NUC 358:102 (1810 ed.); Poggendorff I:30 (1810 ed.).

Man, Jacobus de, b. 1688, engr.

See Print 7.

245 Manzini, Carlo Antonio, d. 1678.

L’occhiale all’occhio dioptrica pratica dove si tratta della luce; della refrattione de raggi; dell’occhio; della vista; e de gli aiuti, che dare si possono à gli occhi per vedere quasi l’impossibile. Dove in oltre si spiegano le regole pratiche di fabbricare occhiali à tutte le viste, e cannocchiali da osservare i pianeti, e le stelle fisse, da terre, da mare, et altri da ingrandire migliaia di volte i minimi de gli oggetti vicini. Bologna: Heirs of Benacci, 1660.

[2], 268, [4] p., [l], plate: port., ill., tables; 21 cm. (4to)

The rare first edition of an important work in the history of optics, valuable as one of the earliest detailed accounts of methods of grinding and polishing lenses. A large number of fine woodcuts illustrate the machinery and processes described by the author.

BOA I:137; Hirschberg §303.

246 Marescotti, Francesco, fl. 1770.

Saggi di operazioni chirurgiche, e mediche, eseguite con metodo della maggiore semplicità, di cui la stessa natura è maestra, e da esito felice quasi sempre accompagnate. Modena: Heirs of B. Soliani, 1777.

[4], 66, [2] p.; 22 cm. (8vo)

Fifty-six surgical case histories are reported including eleven cases involving the eye in the treatment of cataract, corneal injuries, ophthalmia, and lachrymal fistula.

Marlé, engr.

See Print 1.

247 Martin, Benjamin, 1704-1782.

A new and compendious system of optics. In three parts, viz. Part I. Catoptrics, or the doctrine of vision by rays reflected from mirrours, or polished surfaces. Part II. Dioptrics, or the theory of vision by rays refracted through lenses, or transparent substances. Part III. A practical description of a great number of the most useful optical instruments and machines, and their construction shewn from the theory; viz. The eye, camera obscura, single and double microscopes, refracting and reflecting telescopes, perspective glasses, the magic lanthorn, &c. The manner of adapting micrometers to microscopes and telescopes of the reflecting sort. London: J. Hodges, 1740.

xxiv, 295, [1], p., 34 plates; 20 cm. (8vo)

The author, a mathematician, instrument maker, and general scientific compiler, drew up a new system of optics to “remove the Difficulties that have hitherto discouraged Persons from the Study of so excellent a Science” (Preface, p. xv). Among the difficulties enumerated by Martin were the perplexing algebraic solutions and geometric demonstrations in the works of Molyneaux and James Gregory (1638-1675) and the expense of Smith’s treatise (345). Martin was an ardent champion of the Newtonian system.

BOA I:139.

Masselon, Julien, 1844-1917, ed.

See Wecker (408).

Matsuda, Kinsai.

See Plenk (300).

Mauchart, Burchard David, 1696-1751.

See Keck (216).

Mauchart, Burchard David, 1696-1751, praeses.

“De conjunctivae et corneae, oculi tunicarum, vesiculis ac pustulis.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 1:143-168.

“De corneae oculi tunicae examine anatomico-physiologico.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 2:328-367; 3:1-46.

“De empyesi oculi s[ive] pure in secunda oculi camera stagnante.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 2:175-195.

“De fistula corneae.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 2:195-232.

“De hydrophthalmia, & hydrope oculi.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 2:1-18.

“De hypopyo: dem Eyter-Aug, gravi ac intricato affectu oculi.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 1:48-110.

“De maculis corneae earumque operatione chirurgica, apotripsi.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 2:261-328.

“De mydriasi, pupillae seu p. n. dilatatione.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 2:18-72.

“De ocul [sic] artificiali, ekblepharo & ypoblepharo.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 1:250-282.

“De palpebrarum tumoribus cysticis casuque speciali magni tumoris steatomatico-scirrhosi e palpebra superiore et orbita feliciter nuperrime extirpati.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 1:283-312.

“De paracentesi oculi in hydrophthalmia, et amblyopia senum.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 1:341-370.

“De pupillae phthisi ac synizesi, s. angustia p. n. & concretione.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 2:73-114.

“De setaceo nuchae, auricularum, ipsiusque oculi.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 2:232-260.

“De staphylomate, vexato nomine, affectuque oculi difficili ac intricato.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 1:168-250.

“De synechia, sive praeternaturali adhaesione corneae cum iride.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 1:110-143.

“De ulceribus corneae.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 2:141-174.

“De ungue oculi, s. pure inter corneae lamellos collecto.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 2:114-140.

“Ophthalmoxysis nov-antiqua, s. Woolhusiano-Hippocratica nobilissima ocularia e textu graeco eruta & bis mille annos neglecta nunc demum penitus emergens.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 1:1-47.

“Oratio publica in D. D. Tayloris, angli, merita famamque habita cum fasces rectorales de poneret.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 2:368-392.

“Tobiae levcomata.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 1:312-340.

248 Mauchart, Burchard David, 1696-1751, praeses.

De ungue oculi seu pure inter corneae lamellas collecto. Permittente gratiosa facultate medica pareside Burc. David Mauchart. . . . Disputabit pro licentia summos in medicina honores & privilegia doctoris rite catessendi, respondens Carolus Ferdinandus Bilger, Esslingensis, Ad Diem … Jul. MDCCXLII. Tübingen: G. F. Pflick & J. D. Bauhof, 1742.

24 p.; 20 cm. (4to)

Burchard David Mauchart, professor of anatomy and surgery at the University of Tübingen, was one of the outstanding ophthalmologists of his time. His publications appeared exclusively in the form of theses by his pupils, like this one which deals with the pus which collects between the layers of the cornea. It appears also in Haller’s Disp. Chir., Lausanne, 1755 (1:381-395); and also in Dissertationes medicae selec-tae Tubingenses (112).

Waller 6337.

Mauchart, David, 1735-1767, respondent.

“Novum problema chirurgicum de extractione cataractae ultra perficienda.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 3:278-323.

249 Mauclerc, John Henry.

Nomenclatura critica morborum ocularium: or, a critical index to the distempers of the eyes. London: Sold by F. Newbery . . . and C. Heydinger, 1768.

[4], iii, [1], 32 p.; 23 cm. (8vo)

A curious little dictionary of Latin names or latinized forms of Greek names given to diseases of the eyes. Most entries are accompanied by a definition, though no etymologies are provided. The whole is completed with an “Index graecus.”

Blake, p. 293; Hirschberg §400.

250 Maunoir, Jean Pierre, 1768-1861.

Mémoires sur l’organisation de l’iris et l’opération de la pupille artificielle. Paris & Geneva: J. J. Paschoud, 1812.

[4], 69 p., [1] plate; 20 cm. (8vo)

The procedure for iridectomy modified by Maunoir, a Swiss surgeon and ophthalmologist, was widely adopted by other ophthalmic surgeons. It was incorporated into the ophthalmological textbooks of the period. Guthrie (171) [p. 25-27] summarizes Maunoir’s technique and Scarpa’s adaptation of it. The author continued to operate for cataract to the age of eighty with success using an ingenious system of mechanical supports to steady his arms.

Hirschberg §780.

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