Bernard Becker Collection in Ophthalmology


Rare Books — #151 – 200

151 Geminus, Thomas, ca. 1500-ca. 1570.

Compendiosa totius anatomie delineatio. A facsimile of the first English edition of 1553 in the version of Nicholas Udall, with an introduction by C. D. O’Malley. London: Dawson’s of Pall Mall, 1959.

39, [l] p., [100] leaves: facsims.; 44 cm.

The Compendiosa of Geminus, translated into English by Nicholas Udall and present here in a facsimile edition from a copy in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library, was a skillful and successful plagiarism of Vesalius’s two great anatomical treatises. The illustrations, among the earliest English copperplate engravings, were copied from Calcar’s woodcuts which appeared first in Vesalius’s De humani corporis fabrica (387). The text is made up from a fifteenth century manuscript or from Vicary’s digest of it, mingled with passages from the work of Louis Vasse and from Vesalius’s Epitome. Geminus’s purpose in issuing this pirated work was not to promote or extend anatomical knowledge but to provide the barber-surgeons with a practical dissection manual. The illustrations of the eye on the final plate are from the Fabrica (p. 643-644).

Hirschberg §100.

Genth, Carl Philipp, 1844-1904, jt. author.

See Pagenstecher (281.1).

Georgius, Ferdinand Gottfried, respondent.

“De corneae oculi tunicae examine anatomico-physiologico.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 2:328-367.

Gerardus Cremonensis, 1114-1187, ed.

See Alhazen (8).

151.1 Gerold, Jakob Hugo, 1814-1898.

Die Lehre vom schwarzen Staar und dessen Heilung. Nach eigenen Erfahrungen am Krankenbette und pathologisch-anatomischen Untersuchungen für practische Aerzte. Magdeburg: E. Fabricius for Rubach’sche Buchhandlung, 1846.

[4], viii, [2], 377, [1] p., [1] plate: ill.; 21 cm.

Provenance: Signed by the author for Rudolph Mannl in Carlsbad; Karlsbader Stadtbibliothek (bookplate).

Jakob Hugo Gerold (originally: Gerson), a well-known ophthalmologist of Aken on the Elbe and later district physician in Delitzsch, was a professor at the University in Giessen. He taught physiological optics, ophthalmoscopy, and ocular surgery and published several works in ophthalmiatrics specializing in amblyopia, cataract, and diseases of the retina. “Die Lehre vom schwarzen Staar . . . [contains Gerold’s] concept of amaurosis or glaucoma and its cure. Wilhelm Roser (1817-1888) called this work ‘a chaos of nonsequiturs’ (Arch. f. Physiol. Heilk. 1847, p. 96) and recommended the author to use a Latin dictionary so that in the future he would not confuse softening with sclerosis” (Hirschberg §498). Gerold’s terminology is sometimes confusing indeed. He calls himself “ein umfassender Kritik der Nomenklatur” and describes his unique system of terms in the third chapter of the book.

AmEncOph VII:5369; BM 85:27; Hirsch II:727; Hirschberg §498; NUC 197:246; Pagel, col. 595-596.

Gerson, Jacob Hugo, 1814-1898.

See Gerold (151.1).

Gesner, Konrad, 1516-1565.

See Houllier (195).

152 Gibson, Benjamin, 1774-1812.

Practical observations on the formation of an artificial pupil, in several deranged states of the eye; to which are annexed, remarks on the extraction of soft cataracts, and those of the membraneous kind, through a puncture in the cornea. London: J. Haddock (Warrington) for Cadell & Davies, 1811.

[iii]-xiv, [2], [17]-155 p., 2 plates; 22 cm. (8vo)

In 1799, at the age of twenty-five, Gibson was called to Manchester to become Charles White’s assistant. White (1728-1813) was a distinguished Manchester surgeon whose midwifery text contained many original observations on the true nature of puerperal fever which anticipated the later work of Semmelweiss. Written late in the author’s life and the only monograph published by Gibson, this work includes a valuable account of the history of the operation for artificial pupil. James Wardrop (400) published a biographical account of the author in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal 10:1-12 (1814).

Hirschberg §675-676.

153 Gibson, John Mason, fl. 1825-1835.

A condensation of matter upon the anatomy, surgical operations and treatment of diseases of the eye, together with remarks. Baltimore: W. R. Lucas, 1832.

[2], 203, [13] p., 12 plates; 27 cm.

This is the second American book on ophthalmology, preceded only by Frick’s Treatise on the diseases of the eye (Baltimore, 1823). Gibson admits the derivative nature of his work in the preface: “The work is one of compilation [and] the author’s claims to originality do not extend father [sic] than too [sic] the construction of the plates.” Historians of the eye are unanimous in their characterization of this book as a poorly written, ill-arranged and inaccurate work “that is scarcely ever heard of, and deserves oblivion” (Hubbell, p. 98-99). Cf. Harry Friedenwald, “The early history of ophthalmology and otology in Baltimore 1800-1850,” Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 8:184-189 (1897).

Hirschberg §749.

Gifftheil, Christoph Friedrich, respondent.

“De ulceribus corneae.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 2:141-174.

154 Gleize, Jean François, fl. 1763-1811.

Nouvelles observations pratiques sur les maladies de l’oeil et leur traitement; ouvrage fondé sur une nouvelle théorie; dans lequel l’auteur explique & concilie plusieurs méthodes d’opérer la cataracte, & propose différens instrumens nouveaux pour cette opération, ainsi que pour les diverses maladies qui affectent l’oeil. Paris: P. F. Didot, 1786.

vi, [xi]-xvi, 238 p., [3] plates: port.; 22 cm. (8vo)

One of the more reputable of the roving oculists of eighteenth century France, Gleize was an advocate and successful practitioner of the extraction operation in cases of cataract. His works are generally free from the pretentious claims which often characterize the writings of these itinerent oculists; however, he was not above using the popular press to extol his achievements. Laid into this copy is a broadside advertising his services in Paris where he undertook to operate for cataract gratuitously in cases of the genuinely poor. Also inserted is a tract by Gleize on the artificial nourishment of newborns.

Hirschberg §383; Wellcome III:125.

155 Gleize, Jean François, fl. 1763-1811.

Réglement de vie, ou comment doivent se gouverner ceux qui sont affligés de la foiblesse de la vue, avec les moyens de s’en préserver. Orléans: Jacob for Didot & Méquignon (Paris), 1787.

[4], vi, 180 p.; 22 cm. (8vo)

A treatise on ocular hygiene, originally bound as the second volume of a set which included the preceding work. The author was oculist to members of the French nobility and numbered among his patients the Count of Artois and the Duke of Orleans.

A tract against duelling by the same author is inserted in this volume.

Hirschberg §383; Wellcome III:125.

Gmelin, Johann Georg, 1709-1755, respondent.

“Ophthalmoxysis nov-antiqua.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 1:[1]-47.

Gmelin, Philipp Friedrich, 1721-1788, respondent.

“De hypopyo.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 1:48-110.

156 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749-1832.

Beyträge zur Optik. [Facsimile.] Hildesheim: G. Olms, 1964 (Weimar: Industrie-comptoirs, 1791-92).

2 pts. in 1 v. ([4], 62; [4], 30, [2] p.): ill.; 17 cm. + 2 folding sheets (55 x 38 cm.) + 1 packet of 27 cards (10 x 6 cm.) + 1 booklet.

Issued in a case with Schuster (336).

“Goethe, in spite of his inadequate mathematical knowledge, opposed the Newtonian theory of colour and light. In this volume he outlines his own theories on the origin of light and colour and the principles of light. He carried out many experiments with the help of a prism and beams of light” (BOA I:78).

BOA I:78; Hirschberg §1010.

156.1 Gondret, Louis François, 1776-1855.

Mémoire sur le traitement de la cataracte. Deuxiéme édition. Paris: Ladvocat, Crévot, Gabon, 1826.

[4], xv, [1], [5]-38 p.; 21 cm.

Louis François Gondret is remembered chiefly as a disreputable figure in the history of ophthalmology, despite having been a physician to the Court of Justice in Paris, a member of the Royal Academy of Medicine, and an author of numerous ophthalmological works. His reputation stems from his having introduced a traitement syncipital of the cataract, i.e. cauterization of the occiput with red hot copper or with his ammoniac ointment. For this he has been branded a “scoundrel” (Gilbert Breschet, 1835; cf. Hirschberg §555) and a “charlatan” (AmEncOph, p. 5605). This volume contains fifteen of Gondret’s cataract case reports, including several instances for the use of his pommade ammonicale. An English translation was published in 1838.

Callisen VII:298; Hirsch II:795; Hirschberg §555; NUC 205:528 (1828, 1829 eds.).

Gosselin, Leon, 1815-1887, jt. author.

See Denonvilliers (98).

Gouan, Antoine, 1733-1821.

See Pellier de Quengsy (292).

157 Gouillin, Jean Antoine.

Hygiène des yeux ou traité des moyens d’entretenir la vue, de fortifier la vue faible, et de conserver la santé en général; précédé d’un abrégé de l’Exposé de la méthode résolutive, publié en 1838, pour la guérison des maladies des yeux, même de celles qui sont réputées incurables, sans opération et sans l’emploi des instruments tranchants . . . deuxième édition, considérablement augmentée. Paris: for the author, 1843.

[4], 256 p.; 22 cm.

Explanation of the author’s méthode résolutive, in which he proposes to cure heretofore incurable maladies of the eye by the local application of liquid medicaments which “stimulent en même temps les vaisseaux lymphatiques absorbans, et les rendent propres à débarrasser les membranes et les humeurs de l’oeil des fluides épanchés et de l’albumine concrétée qui troublent leur transparence” (p. 6). A second part deals with ocular hygiene in general.

Hirschberg §470; Wellcome III:141.

Gowers, Sir William Richard, 1845-1915, trans.

See Pagenstecher (281.1).

158 Gowers, Sir William Richard, 1845-1915.

A manual and atlas of medical ophthalmoscopy. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1879.

xi, [1], 352 p., XVI plates: ill.; 23 cm.

Almost from the beginning Gowers’s principal medical interests lay in neurology, culminating in his great work on the diseases of the nervous system in 1886. His first book of any real importance, however, was this manual on ophthal-moscopy. The plates were all prepared after the author’s own sepia drawings, which, according to the Dictionary of National Biography (1912-21, p. 222), “made them for long the standard illustrations on the subject.” Ten of the sixteen plates are autotypes, which Gowers preferred, since “by it a more exact representation of delicate pathological appearances can be obtained than by chromolithography” (Pref., p. [iii]).

BOA I:80; DicNatBio 1912-21, p. 222; Hirsch II:814.

159 Gowers, Sir William Richard, 1845-1915.

A manual and atlas of medical ophthalmoscopy. . . . Third edition revised throughout, with numerous additions and additional illustrations. Edited with the assistance of Marcus Gunn. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co., 1890.

xi, [1], 330 p., XII plates: ill.; 22 cm.

In the preface to the third edition Gowers writes, “The whole work has been subjected to a revision sufficiently thorough to involve additions and alterations on almost every page and in almost every paragraph” (p. [v]). In this edition the four lithographic plates that followed the autotypes in the first edition have been engraved as illustrations in the text.

Osler 2786.

Graefe, Albrecht von, 1828-1870.

Three memoirs on iridectomy in certain forms of iritis, choroiditis, and glaucoma.

In Selected monographs (338.1).

Graefe, Albrecht von, 1828-1870.

See Jaeger (204.1).

160 Graefe, Albrecht von, 1828-1870.

Clinical lectures by Professor A. von Graefe, on amblyopia and amaurosis and the extraction of cataract. Boston: D. Clapp & Son, 1866.

iv, [5]-86, [2] p.; 23 cm.

Provenance: Inscribed by the translator to Dr. A. A. Gould; —Medical Society of the County of Kings (bookplate).

The Clinical lectures were translated by Hasket Derby from the Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde for the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal in 1865. “Its publication is undertaken for the two-fold object of introducing Albrecht von Graefe to the American medical public as a clinical teacher, and of exhibiting the progress which has been made in the exploration of one of the most obscure departments of the ophthalmic science, and for which we are indebted to his genius and industry” (Pref., p. iii-iv).

“Albrecht von Graefe . . . [is generally considered] the creator of the modern surgery of the eye, and indeed the greatest of all eye surgeons. . . . [He] introduced the operation of iridectomy in the treatment of iritis, iridochoroiditis, and glaucoma (1855-62), made the operation for strabismus viable (1857), and improved the treatment of cataract (1865-68). . . . He applied the ophthalmoscope to the study of the amblyopias in functional disorders . . .; made a brilliant diagnosis of the retinal artery as the cause of the case of sudden blindness (1859), and proceeded to point out that most cases of blindness and impaired vision connected with cerebral disorders are traceable to optic neuritis rather than to paralysis of the optic nerve (1860). . . . Graefe was also the founder of modern knowledge of sympathetic ophthalmia (1866) and the semeiology of ocular paralyses (1866), described conical cornea (1854), . . . and first noted the stationary condition of the upper eyelid, when the eyeball is rolled up and down in exophthalmic goiter (Greafe’s sign, 1864)” (Garrison, p. 608-609).

BM 90:156; NUC 209:228.

161 Graefe, Albrecht von, 1828-1870.

Sehen und Sehorgan. Berlin: C. G. Lüderitz’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (A. Charisius), 1867.

48 p.: ill.; 22 cm.

Issued as part of the Sammlung gemeinverständlicher wissenschaftlicher Vorträge (Serie II, Heft 27).

Graefe, Alfred Karl, 1830-1899, ed.

See Handbuch der gesammten Augenheilkunde (176).

162 Grassus, Benvenutus, fl. 12th cent.

De oculis eorumque egritudinibus et curis. Translated with notes and illustrations from the first printed edition, Ferrara, 1474 A.D. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1929.

xiii, [l], 101, [3] p., [5] plates; 23 cm.

English translation of the earliest printed book on ophthalmology. “Grassi was the most celebrated ophthalmic surgeon of the Middle Ages” (G-M 5816).

Hirschberg §291.

162.1 Gregoris, Luigi de.

Delle cateratte dei ciechi nati e della diversità della loro specie osservazioni teorico-cliniche del professore di chirurgia e di oftalmiatria Luigi de Gregoris Romano. Rome: Tipografia Perego-Salvioniana, 1826.

viii, 73, [1] p., [1] plate; 20 cm. (8vo)

Wellcome III:162.

162.2 Griffiths, Elijah, d. 1847.

An essay on ophthalmia, or inflammation of the eyes. Philadelphia: H. Maxwell, 1804.

26 p.; 23 cm.

A doctoral dissertation on endophthalmitis submitted to the University of Pennsylvania June 1, 1804. Elijah Griffiths, an honorary member of the Philadelphia Medical Society, was a physician in the Philadelphia Almshouse, which later became the Philadelphia General Hospital.

Austin 845; NUC 218:580; Reynolds 1732; Shaw 6424.

162.3 Grimaldi, Francesco Maria, 1618-1663.

Physico-mathesis de lumine, coloribus et iride. Bologna: Heirs of V. Benatius, 1665.

[20], 535, [17] p.: diagrs.; 24 cm. (4to)

The first and only edition of Grimaldi’s work on the discovery of the diffraction of light was edited by Girolamo Bernia and published two years after the author’s death. Grimaldi, a Jesuit professor of mathematics at Bologna, summarized his optical observations in this work which is a classic in the history of optics. This work marks the first scientific attempt to establish a comprehensive wave theory of light.

Hirschberg §451.

163 Grimaldi, Francesco Maria, 1618-1663.

Physico-mathesis de lumine coloribus et iride 1665. Facsimile reprint. London: Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1966 (Bologna: Heirs of V. Benatius, 1665).

[24], 535, [17] p.: diagrs.; 27 cm.

Grosseteste, Roger.

See Lacepiera (222).

164 Grossius, Thomas.

Lectiones de morbis capitis, et thoracis, in quibus infinita problemata, plures etiam Hyppocratis, Galeni, Avicennae, & aliorum auctorum controversiae explicantur, concilianturve. Accessit quaestio, an vinum nive refrigeratum propinari debeat. Ferrara: F. Succius, 1628.

[16], 516 p.; 23 cm.

Grossius wrote this treatise on diseases affecting the parts of the head while professor of medicine at Ferrara. The De morbis capitis includes sections on the maladies of the brain, ears and nose, as well as the eyes (p.281-323). References to Greek and Arabic medical authorities abound on every page. In accordance with this medical tradition, Grossius maintains that affections of the eye result from either a want or too great an abundance of the spiritus visiuus, a humor that proceeds from the brain. Thus, cataract is the concretion of such a humor before the lens; inflammations result from its collection in the eye and subsequent heating, etc.

165 Guépin, Ange, 1805-1873.

Nouvelles études théoriques & cliniques sur les maladies des yeux, l’oeil et la vision. Paris: Germer-Baillière, 1857.

88 p.; 22 cm.

Guépin intended to publish five fascicules in a series entitled Nouvelles études théoriques et cliniques sur les maladies des yeux, l’oeil et la vision. Only this first fascicule appears ever to have been published.

166 Guérin, Pierre, 1740-1827.

Traité sur les maladies des yeux, dans lequel l’auteur, après avoir exposé les différentes méthodes de faire l’opération de la cataracte, propose un instrument nouveau qui fixe l’oeil tout à la fois & opere la section de la cornée. Lyons: V. Reguilliat, 1769.

xvi, 445, [7] p., [l] plate; 17 cm. (12mo)

This first published work by Guérin has been characterized by Julius Hirschberg as eine taube nuss (“an empty nut”). As with so many works on cataract of this period the author proposed a modification of the extraction operation using an instrument of his own design. Haller (Haller Chir II:551) observed that while the arrangement of the book was less than satisfactory, the author possessed much experience. An extended obituary of Guérin was published in Notice des travaux de la Soçiété de Médecine de Bordeaux, 83-113 (1827).

BOA I:84; Hirschberg §377; Waller 3804; Wellcome III:176.

Guérin, Pierre, 1740-1827.

See Pellier de Quengsy (292).

167 Guillemard, Pierre-Louis.

Dissertatio medica de suffusione. . . . Praeside . . . Francisco Boissier de Sauvages. . . . Avignon: Joseph Tilan, 1760.

27 p.; 23 cm. (4to)

The Latin suffusio is usually translated “cataract”, but is used in this work to refer to the phenomenon we term photopsia. This dissertation was submitted under the supervision of François Boissier de Sauvages de la Croix (1706-1767) and published at Avignon.

168 Guillemeau, Jacques, 1550-1613.

Traité des maladies de l’oeil, qui sont en nombre de cent treize, ausquelles il est suject. Paris: C. Massé, 1585.

[18], 101 (i.e. 100), [1] leaves; 17 cm. (8vo)

“His book was an epitome of the existing knowledge on the subject, chiefly from Greek and Arabian sources” (G-M 5818). A sonnet by Ambroise Paré addressed to the author praises his pupil and recalls their collaboration at the Hotel Dieu, on the battlefield, and as surgeons to the King.

G-M 5818; Hirschberg §319; Waller 3855.

169 Guillié, Sébastien, 1780-1865.

Essai sur l’instruction des aveugles, ou exposé analytique des procédés employés pour les instruire. Paris: ‘les aveugles’, 1817.

224 p., 22 plates: diagrs.; 20 cm. (8vo)

Guillié established the first ophthalmological clinic in France and became director of the Institution Royale des Jeunes Aveugles in Paris. The Institution, founded by Haüy (181) in 1785, was the first such school for the blind in the world. The author chronicles the philanthropic deeds directed toward the blind up to that time and describes the first attempts at special graphic methods for the use of the blind. Of particular interest is the account of his methods of instructing the blind in various crafts. The plates show blind craftsmen engaged in a variety of skilled occupations. Guillié endeavored to understand and encourage the communication which he observed between blind and deaf-mute children at the time when the two institutions were united (p. 170-177). There is a correction by the author handwritten in the margin on p. 97.

Hirschberg §554; Waller 3858; Wellcome III:180.

170 Gullstrand, Allvar, 1862-1930.

Allgemeine Theorie der monochromatischen Aberrationen und ihre nächsten Ergebnisse für die Ophthalmologie. Uppsala: Akademische Buch-druckerei (E. Berling), 1900.

[6], 204 p.: ill.; 29 cm.

Professor of ophthalmology at the University of Uppsala at the time this work was written, Gullstrand later became professor of physics and physical optics, until retiring in 1927. The author offers here his general theory of monochromatic aberrations. For his work on the diffraction of light by lenses applied to the eye Gullstrand was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1911, the only ophthalmologist yet to receive this honor. Charles Snyder has remarked that “next to Helmholtz, Gullstrand contributed more than anyone else to a mathematical understanding of the human eye as an optical system” (Snyder, p. 149).

G-M 5945; Hirschberg §868; Pybus 853; Waller 3872.

Gunn, Robert Marcus, 1850-1909, ed.

See Gowers (159).

171 Guthrie, George James, 1785-1856.

A treatise on the operations for the formation of an artificial pupil; in which the morbid states of the eye requiring them, are considered; and the mode of performing the operation, adapted to each peculiar case, fully explained; with an account of the opinions and practice of the different foreign and British authors who have written on the subject. London: F. Dutton for Longmans and Callow, Burgess & Hill, 1819.

xix, [1], 209, [3] p., 2 plates; 23 cm. (8vo)

In 1817 the author, who had accompanied Wellington in the Napoleonic campaigns, presented a course of lectures on the anatomy and the diseases of the eye, the first such systematic lectures in England on this subject. Guthrie wrote this book to provide students with a conspectus of both English and European opinions with respect to the operations for artificial pupil. Guthrie’s introduction takes the form of a careful overview of the history of this surgical procedure.

BOA I:86; Hirschberg §655-656.

172 Guthrie, George James, 1785-1856.

Lectures on the operative surgery of the eye or, an historical and critical inquiry into the methods recommended for the cure of cataract, for the formation of an artificial pupil, &c. &c. &c. containing a new method of operating for cataract by extraction, which obviates all the difficulties and dangers hitherto attendant on that operation: being the substance of that part of the author’s course of lectures on the principles and practice of surgery which relates to the operations on that organ. 2d ed. London: C. Wood for Burgess & Hill, 1827.

xxvii, [1], 554 p., 7 plates; 23 cm.

“Guthrie founded the Royal Westminster Ophthalmic Hospital, London, in 1816. He was the earliest teacher of the subject in the British Isles. The above includes important work on the artificial pupil” (G-M 5845). The first edition appeared in 1823.

Hirschberg §655-656; Waller 3884; Wellcome II:182.

173 Haase, Johann Gottlob, 1739-1801.

Ordinis medicorum. . . procancellarius D. Ioannes Gottlob Haase. . . panegyrin medicam. . . indixit et de narium morbis alteram commentationem scripsit. Leipzig: S. Linck, 1797.

xi, [1] p., [2] plates; 24 cm. (4to)

Bound with Rosenmüller (314).

Haase, Rosenmüller’s teacher, published this panegyric and dissertation on the diseases of the nose to accompany Rosenmüller’s dissertation. The plates were designed by Rosenmüller and the work includes his vita.

Hackley, Charles Elihu, 1836-1925, ed. & trans.

See Stellwag von Carion (354, 355).

174 Haguenot, Henri, 1687-1775.

Tractatus de morbis capitis externis. Geneva: H. A. Gosse & ‘socios’, 1751.

[6], 280 p.; 18 cm. (12mo)

Haguenot, professor of medicine at Montpellier, wrote this work on the diseases of the external parts of the head for the use of his students. Considerable attention is given to diseases of the eye (p. 2-134), but it was a work of secondary interest and Haguenot failed to cite those authors on whose work he so heavily drew. The Becker Library (Goldstein Collection) also holds a copy of the duodecimo edition published in Avignon in the same year.

Hirschberg §385.

175 Hall, John Charles, 1816-1876.

On the nature and treatment of some of the more important diseases, medical & surgical, including the principal diseases of the eye. . . . Second edition, enlarged. London: J. Churchill, 1844.

[6], [v]-viii, 247 p.; 23 cm.

Physician to the Sheffield Public Hospital and lecturer at the Sheffield School of Medicine, Hall was a frequent contributor to the British Medical Journal and the author of half a dozen medical monographs. The present work was originally published in 1843 under the title Clinical remarks on the diseases of the eye. It is divided into two parts: the first on the diseases of the eye, and the second on non-ocular maladies.

Hirsch III:31.

Haller, Albrecht von, 1708-1777, ed.

See Boerhaave (53).

Hampel, E.

See Stellwag von Carion (356).

176 Handbuch der gesammten Augenheil- kunde.

Herausgegeben von Prof. Arlt in Wien . . . [et al.]. . . . Redigirt von Prof. Alfred Graefe und Prof. Theodor Saemisch. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 1874-80.

7 v.: ill.; 23 cm.

“In the literature of ophthalmology there stands as a monument of greatness unequalled by any other work, the Handbuch der gesammten Augenheilkunde” (Chance, p. 155). The Handbuch was the collaborative effort of some of the greatest German-speaking ophthalmologists of the nineteenth century, under the editorship of Alfred Graefe and Theodor Saemisch.

Chance, p. 155; Hirschberg §1102.

177 Hannover, Adolph, 1814-1894.

Das Auge. Beiträge zur Anatomie, Physiologie und Pathologie dieses Organs. Leipzig: L. Voss, 1852.

[4], 159, [1] p., IV plates; 21 cm.

Danish born, Hannover received his medical education at Paris and in Berlin. He was a prolific author of works on microscopic technique and on the anatomy and physiology of the eye. The present work is a collection of previously published articles originally offered in book form in a Danish edition of 1850. In 1856 and again in 1878 Hannover received the Monthyon Prize of the Institut de France for his investigations into the anatomy and pathology of the eye.

Hirsch III:54.

178 Harder, Matthaeus.

De cataracta, seu suffusione. Basel: J. Bertsche, 1675.

[24] p.; 19 cm. (4to)

An early dissertation on cataract, presented at the University of Basel. Harder, a native of Schaffhausen (Switzerland) was a relative of J. J. Harder (1656-1711), who distinguished himself as an anatomist and who here added a poem in praise of the author.

Hirschberg §1168.

179 Hartmann, Johann, 1568-1631.

Anthropologia physico-medico-anatomica . . . in qua totius humani corporis mechanica structura describitur, partiumque usus, atque operandi modus examinatur. Opus non inutile, maximè medicinam exercentibus cum indice rerum notabilium, quae pertractantur. Venice: J. B. Tramontini, 1696.

[14], 350, [2] p.; 24 cm. (4to)

The first to hold an established chair of chemistry at a European university, Hartmann, a chemist in the Paracelsian tradition, sought to introduce chemical therapeutics into the practice of medicine. The use of mercury in cases of cataract and incurable blindness is mentioned in the chapter on the eye (p. 295-315). The work is essentially a compendium of anatomy with physiological hypotheses.

179.1 Hasner, Josef, Ritter von Artha, 1818-1892.

Klinische Vorträge über Augenheilkunde. Prague: F. A. Credner, 1860-65.

3 pts. in 1 v. (vi, [2], 119; [2], [121]-217; [2], [219]-324 p.): ill.; 23 cm.

Joseph Hasner, born and educated in Prague, succeeded Ferdinand Arlt as first assistant in Johann Fischer’s eye clinic, and was professor of ophthalmology at the University of Prague from 1852 to 1884. He discovered “the valve of Hasner” (i.e., plica lacrimalis), and introduced the theory that myopia is caused by a stretching of the eyeball due to pulling on the posterior pole by the optic nerve. Hasner was on the editorial board of the Prager Medicinische Vierteljahrschrift, and published numerous ophthalmological journal articles and monographs. This volume contains his clinical lectures in three parts: I. diseases of the sclera and the eyeballs; lectures on eye glasses and ophthalmoscopy; II. diseases of the cornea; III. diseases of the system of lenses.

AmEncOph VIII:5704; BM 99:294; Hirsch III:82; NUC 234:164.

Haug, Philipp Adam, respondent.

“De ocul [sic] artificiali, ekblepharo & ypoblepharo.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 1:250-282.

180 Haugsted, Frederik Christian, 1804-1866.

Læren om Øiets Sygdomme, over-eenstemmende med Videnskabens nyeste Fremskridt, efter de berømteste Øienlægers Værker paa Dansk bearbeitet. Copenhagen: P. R. Jørgensen for C. A. Reitzels, 1834.

viii, 331 p., [1] plate; 18 cm.

A compendium on the diseases of the eye from the writings of some of the most important contemporary German, English, French and Italian authors. Haugsted was Privat-Docent at the University of Copenhagen. This particular work was intended as a manual for his students in ophthalmology.

Callisen XXVIII:411; Hirsch III:89; Hirschberg §863.

181 Haüy, Valentin, 1745-1822.

Essai sur l’éducation des aveugles, ou exposé de différens moyens, vérifiés par l’expérience, pour les mettre en état de lire, à l’aide du tact, d’imprimer des livres dans lesquels il puissent prendre des connoissances de langues, d’histoire, de géographie, de musique, &c., d’exécuter différens travaux relatifs aux métiers, &c. Paris: Clousier, 1786.

vii, [1], 126, 15, [37] p.; 25 cm. (4to)

“Haüy founded the first school for the blind. To him belongs the honour of being the first to emboss paper as a means of reading for the blind. His Essai originated modern methods of teaching and caring for blind persons” (G-M 5833). The Essai is printed on only one side of each leaf, the blank sides being pasted together. The type is the disconnected “caractères en relief” used at the Institution for teaching the “enfans aveugles.” At a special audience at Versailles on December 26, 1786, Haüy and his pupils presented a number of specially bound copies of this work to Louis XVI and members of the royal family. This copy was presented to Madame Adélaïde (1732-1800), daughter of Louis XV and Marie Leczinska and Louis XVI’s aunt. Madam Adelaïde’s library of more than 10,000 volumes was sold at the time of the French Revolution. Her books were uniformly bound in red morocco by Fournier of Versailles and Pierre Vente of Paris with her coat-of-arms in gold on the covers.

Hirschberg §407; Olivier, 26. ser., 3. pt.

Haüy, Valentin, 1745-1822.

An essay on the education of the blind; or, an explication of the different means, confirmed by successful experiments, to render them capable of reading by the assistance of touch, and of printing books, in which they may obtain the knowledge of languages, of history, of geography, of music, &c. of performing the different offices necessary in mechanical employments, &c. Paris: Printed in the original by blind children, 1786.

In Blacklock (51), p. [217]-262.

Haüy, Valentin, 1745-1822.

See also Do you want a friend? (114.1).

Hays, Isaac, 1796-1879, ed.

See Jones (213) and Lawrence (233).

181.1 Heister, Lorenz, 1683-1758.

De cataracta glaucomate et amaurosi tractatio in qua multae novae opiniones & inventa contra vulgatas medicorum, chirurgorum, philosophorum nec non mathematicorum sententias continentur. . . . Altdorf: J. G. Kohles, 1713.

[16], 368 p., II plates; 17 cm. (8vo)

Heister, the founder of scientific surgery (as well as of ophthalmology) in Germany, is erroneously credited in the Dictionary of scientific biography as having discovered the true cause of cataract. That cataract is an opacity of the lens had been maintained by a few physicians even before Maître-Jan adopted this thesis or Brisseau published his classic monograph (63) establishing cataract’s true nature. To Heister, however, belongs the credit of being the first German physician to support the startling new theory, while giving full credit for its re-discovery to the duo industrii Galli, Maître-Jan and Brisseau. This book was immediately swept into the vortex of the controversy between the supporters of the two Frenchmen and their opponents, notably Woolhouse (423), Hecquet and Hovius.

Blake, p. 204; DicSciBio VI:231; Hirsch III:141; Hirschberg §331, 410.

182 Heister, Lorenz, 1683-1758.

Apologia et uberior illustratio systematis sui de cataracta glaucomate et amaurosi contra Wolhusii ocularii Parisiensis cavillationes & objectiones itemque Parisiensis eruditorum diarii iniquam censuram. Altdorf: J. G. Kohles, 1717.

[30], 307, [1] p., [1] plate; 17 cm. (8vo)

Heister was the first German physician to support the thesis of Maître-Jan (243-44) and Brissseau (63) that the true nature of cataract was an opacity of the crystalline lens. Heister’s opinion dates from 1711 when his first dissertation on the subject appeared. He published supporting works in 1712 and 1713 and in the present work he defended this view against his critics, notably Woolhouse (423) and Andry. Woolhouse held that cataract consisted of a “thickened humor” or membrane in a purely imaginary cataract space between the pupil and the lens. An engraved frontispiece presents a classic illustration of couching for cataract in a richly appointed eighteenth century drawing room.

Hirschberg §410; Waller 4235.

183 Heister, Lorenz, 1683-1758.

Institutiones chirurgicae, in quibus quidquid ad rem chirurgicam pertinet, optima et novissima ratione pertractatur. . . . Opus quadraginta fere annorum, nunc demum, post aliquot editiones germanica lingua evulgatas, in exterorum gratiam latine altera vice longe auctius atque emendatius publicatum. Amsterdam: Jansson-Waesberge, 1750.

2 v. ([4], viii, 56, [8], 599, [1] p., 19 plates; [2], 603-1187, [52] p., 21 plates): port.; 25 cm. (4to)

Heister emerged as the outstanding German surgeon of the first half of the seventeenth century and his textbook of surgery was accepted throughout Europe. An extensive section on surgery of the eye and the eye lids (p. 507-599) presents a full picture of early eighteenth century ophthalmic surgery. This work first appeared in 1718 and was reissued frequently in Latin and the major European languages until the last edition in 1779.

Hirschberg §410; Wellcome III:237.

184 Heister, Lorenz, 1683-1758, praeses.

De tunica oculi choroidea . . . publice defendet Joannes Sigismundus Leincker. . . . Venice: A. Bortoli, 1764.

xvi, 64 p., [l] plate; 17 cm. (8vo)

Third edition of a dissertation by Johann Sigismund Leincker (1724-1788), much augmented by Heister, for his medical degree at Helmstaedt. Heister himself published a dissertation on the anatomy of the choroidea of the same title in 1708. The second edition of this dissertation was published in Venice in 1752.

Blake, p. 204.

Heliodorus of Larissa, 2nd cent.

See Euclid (125).

185 Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von, 1821-1894.

Handbuch der physiologischen Optik. Leipzig: L. Voss, 1867.

xiv, 874, [4] p., XI plates: ill.; 23 cm.

The great classic of nineteenth century physiological optics, the Handbuch was issued in three parts between 1856 and 1866, prior to being published as a whole in 1867. The first part, issued when Helmholtz was professor of anatomy and physiology at Bonn, gives a detailed treatment of the dioptrics of the eye, the various imperfections of the lens system, his theory of accommodation, and a description of the ophthalmoscope. In the second part, issued in 1860, two years after Helmholtz had gone to Heidelberg, he revives Thomas Young’s theory of color vision (423.1), and discusses the phenomena of irradiation, after images and contrast phenomena. The third part, issued toward the end of 1866, is an extended defense of his empiric theory of visual perception, an epistemological corollary to his physiology of vision.

Cushing H231; G-M 1513; Heirs 1010; Hirsch III:151; Hirschberg §1021; Waller 4299.

Helmholtz, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von, 1821-1894.

See also Festschrift (134.1).

Herz, Ludwig.

See Stellwag von Carion (357).

186 Heurne, Johan van, 1543-1601.

Praxis medicinae nova ratio, qua, libris tribus methodi ad praxin medicam, auditus facillimus aperitur ad omnes morbos curandos. Recognita & emendata ab auctore, & auctior ac melior reddita: ita ut iam extrema manu ficta, & manumissa ab eo fit. Leyden: F. Raphelengien for Officina Plantiniana, 1590.

[8], 518, [20] p., [3] tables; 21 cm. (4to)

Bound with Heurne (187, 188).

187 Heurne, Johan van, 1543-1601.

De morbis pectoris liber, editus post mortem auctoris, ab ejus filio Othone Heurnio. Leyden: F. Raphelengien for Officina Plantiniana, 1602.

Bound with Heurne (186, 188).

188 Heurne, Johan van, 1543-1601.

De morbis oculorum, aurium, nasi, dentium et oris, liber, editus post mortem auctoris, ab ejus filio Othone Heurnio. Leyden: F. Raphelengien for Officina Plantiniana, 1608.

[8], 96 (i.e. 66), [6] p.; 21 cm. (4to)

Bound with Heurne (186, 187).

Heurne studied medicine at Louvain, Paris, and Padua where he took his medical degree in 1571. A student of Fabricius ab Aquapendente, Heurne was a devoted admirer of Hippocrates and one of the restorers of Hippocratic medicine in the sixteenth century. As professor of medicine at Leyden he introduced clinical teaching of medicine as early as 1591 and was the first to undertake anatomical demonstrations on human cadavers. This work was edited and published posthumously by his son, Otto, who succeeded him at Leyden. The section on diseases of the eye (p. 1-33) is drawn for the most part from the writings of the ancients. While the provenance of this volume is uncertain, due to the partial obliteration of the title page inscription, this copy once belonged to a Jos. Barth of Vienna, perhaps the oculist to Joseph II of the House of Hapsburg.

Heurne, Otto van 1577-1652, ed.

See Heurne (186, 187, 188).

189 Hewson, Thomas, 1783-1831.

Observations on the history and treatment of the ophthalmia accompanying the secondary forms of lues venerea. London: R. and A. Spottiswoode for Longmans, 1824.

xi, [1], 117 p., [1] plate; 21 cm.

A little-known treatise on venereal ophthalmia by a member of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, professor of materia medica and pharmacy, and surgeon to Meath Hospital in Dublin. Despite unfavorable reviews in the leading journals the work went through three editions, the last appearing in 1836 under the title Practical observations on the history, nature & treatment of the venereal diseases of the eye. An extended review appeared in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal 23:358-378 (1825).

Hirschberg §637.

190 Heymann, Mme. Alfred.

Lunettes et lorgnettes de jadis. Paris: J. Leroy & Co., 1911.

x, [4], 65, [3], 58, [2] p., 24 plates: ill.; 34 cm.

“A limited edition [this is copy 286 of 300 numbered copies] of a work dealing with the history of spectacles, tracing their successive forms, and showing their anachronistic representation by medieval painters. A great number of historic and interesting examples are shown of spectacles, lorgnettes, quizzers, cases, etc.” (BOA II:47).

Included is a facsimile of a seventeenth century treatise by Jacques Bourgeois on the preservation of sight, entitled “Advis aux curieux de la conservation de leur veüe” (Paris, 1645).

BOA II:47.

Himly, Ernst August Wilhelm, 1800-1881, ed.

See Himly (191).

191 Himly, Karl, 1772-1837.

Die Krankheiten und Missbildungen des menschlichen Auges und deren Heilung. Nach den hinterlassenen Papieren desselben herausgegeben und mit Zusätzen versehen von E. A. W. Himly. Berlin: B. G. H. Schmidt (Nordhausen) for A. Hirschwald, 1843.

2 v. ([2], xvi, 585, [1] p., [1] plate; viii, 521 p., 5 plates); 23 cm.

“Himly was professor of ophthalmology at Jena and later at Göttingen. He introduced clinical teaching in ophthalmology” (G-M 5857). This work was published posthumously by the author’s son, Ernst August Wilhelm Himly (1800-1881), professor of physiology, comparative anatomy and legal medicine at Göttingen.

G-M 5857; Hirschberg §482; Waller 4483; Wellcome III:268.

Himly, Karl, 1772-1837.

See also Weiss (410.2).

192 Hippel, Eugen von, 1867-1939.

Ueber Siderosis Bulbi und die Beziehungen zwischen siderotischer und hämotogener Pigmen-tirung. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 1894.

161 p.; 22 cm.

Hippel’s Habilitationsschrift for the medical faculty at Heidelberg, while he was an assistant at the university eye clinic. It was published the same year as an article in Albrecht von Graefe’s Archiv für Ophthalmologie (Bd. XL, Abt. 1:123-279, 1894).

Hoelder, Philipp Friedrich Benjamin, respondent.

“De staphylomate, vexato nomine, affectuque oculi difficili as intricato.”

In Dissertationes medicae selectae Tubingenses (112) 1:168-250.

193 Hogg, Jabez, 1817-1899.

The ophthalmoscope; its mode of application explained, and its value shown, in the exploration of internal diseases affecting the eye. London: J. Churchill, 1858.

[6], 107 p., [1] plate: ill.; 20 cm.

“I believe the instrument destined to open out a new era in ophthalmic medicine,” wrote Hogg in the preface to this book, the first monograph on ophthalmoscopy to be published in the English language. It originally appeared as a series of articles in The Lancet for 1857. A second edition was also published in 1858.

BOA I:100; Hirschberg §659.

194 Hogg, Jabez, 1817-1899.

A manual of ophthalmoscopic surgery; being a practical treatise on the use of the ophthalmoscope in diseases of the eye. . . . Third edition, re-written and enlarged. London: J. Churchill & Sons, 1863.

xii, 296 p., 4 plates; 23 cm.

The third edition of Hogg’s The ophthalmoscope (193). Considerably larger than the previous two editions, the Manual received mixed reviews in the British medical press. Both the British Medical Journal and The Lancet gave the book favorable reviews, the latter’s only criticism being that the plates “compare disadvantageously with those of other authors, continental and English.” The Ophthalmic Review however was not so favorable. “The book is so utterly and unutterly bad,” wrote the reviewer, “that we almost despair of being able to impart anything like a correct impression of its demerits.” Fair or unfair, we offer one last quote, “. . . he pursues his way, breaking through concords, tumbling over relative pronouns, misquoting, mistaking, misspelling, ignoring optics, trampling upon physiology, and all the while sustained by an unconsciousness of his own ignorance, and by a serene faith in his own destiny, that unite to impart to his eccentricities an audacity that borders upon the sublime.”

BOA I:100; Hirsch III:271; Hirschberg §659.

Hoin, Jean Jacques Louis, 1722-1772.

“Sur une espèce de cataracte nouvellement observée.”

In Académie Royale de Chirurgie, Mémoires (2).

Holmes, Timothy, 1825-1907, trans.

See Selected monographs (338.1).

194.1 Holmgren, Alarik Frithiof, 1831-1897.

Om färgblindheten i dess förhållande till jernvägstrafiken och sjöväsendet. Uppsala: E. Berling, 1877.

[4], 172, [2] p., [1] color plate: ill.; 22 cm.

Alarik Frithiof Holmgren was professor of physiology at the University of Uppsala and also the founder of the first physiological research laboratory in Sweden. One of the first Swedish medical educators specializing in optics, he gave special consideration to color-blindness and stimulated an entirely new branch of literature on defective vision. His test for color vision, the Holmgren test, consisted of selecting skeins of woolen yarns of various colors, shades, tints, and grays to match three standard test skeins. “A serious railway accident in Sweden in 1875 was believed by Holmgren to be due to colour-blindness, and resulted in the above important paper dealing with the condition and its relation to railway and maritime traffic” (G-M 5916).

G-M 5916 (cited as an article in Upsala Läkaref. Förh. 12:171-251, 267-358; 1876-77); Hirsch III:280 (1878 German ed.); Hirschberg §869 (1878 German ed.); Waller 4856.

Holscher, Georg Philipp, 1792-1852.

See Neue Bibliothek (272.1).

194.2 Horner, William Edmonds, 1793-1853.

Description of a small muscle at the internal commissure of the eyelids. Philadelphia: W. Fry, 1824.

14 p., [1] plate; 22 cm.

After serving as army surgeon in the war of 1812, Horner was an anatomy prosector under Caspar Wistar, J. S. Dorsey, and P. S. Physick at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1831 he succeeded Physick as professor of anatomy, and later was appointed dean of the medical school. His Treatise on the descriptive anatomy of the human body became a generally used textbook, and his Treatise on pathological anatomy is considered the first work on the subject written in the United States. “He made several advances in anatomy including the discovery of the tensor tarsi (Horner’s muscle), a muscle in the lachrymal apparatus” (Heirs 1499), although both Hirschberg and Morton point out that this muscle was first described by J. F. M. Du Verney in 1749 and later by J. C. Rosenmüller in 1805 (G-M 1494, Hirschberg §751).

This work is Horner’s second treatise on the tensor tarsi which was reprinted from the Philadelphia Journal of the Medical and Physical Sciences (May, 1824) and won the author acclaim for improvements over the observations of Du Verney and Rosenmüller (Hirschberg §751). The volume contains a plate, drawn and engraved by J. Drayton, illustrating the Horner’s muscle.

AmEncOph VIII:6010 (cited as an article; see G-M); G-M 1494 (cited as an article in Philad. J. Med. Phys. Sci. 8:70-80; 1824); Hirsch III:301 (cited as an article; see G-M).

195 Houllier, Jacques, d. 1562.

Viaticum novum. De omnium fere par-ticularium morborum curatione, liber, authoris innominati quidem, sed longè doctissimi, verè aureus & incomparabilis, nunc primùm in lucem editus per Casparum Wolphium. Zurich: C. Froschauer, 1565.

[8], 142, [1] leaves; 16 cm. (8vo)

A sixteenth century handbook for medical practitioners which contains three chapters on diseases of the eye—“De ophthalmia,” “De debilitate visus,” and “De cataracta” (leaves 32-40).

Caspar Wolf (1532-1601) discovered, edited, and published this work from a manuscript of unknown authorship. A Paris edition of the same year, however, was published as the work of Jacques Houllier whose manuscripts passed at his death to his students Didier Jacot, Louis Duret, and Antoine Valet for publication. Wolf acknowledged Houllier’s authorship in the second Zurich edition (1578) which he also edited. The notice to the reader is by Konrad Gesner, an intimate friend of the author and a distinguished zoologist, physician and bibliographer.

Durling 2494.

196 Hovius, Jacobus, fl. 1702.

De circulari humorum ocularium motu. Utrecht: G. van de Water, 1702.

44 p., 3 plates; 21 cm. (4to)

The author’s doctoral dissertation, defended at the University of Utrecht, which contains the discovery of the circle of anastomoses between the anterior branches of the venae vorticosae, present in the eyes of many mammals but not usually occurring in man. Ruysch described the same circuit in 1706 and Hovius, in defense of his prior discovery of what is now eponymously known as the “canal of Hovius,” published his Epistola apologetica.

This dissertation also contains observations on the influx and efflux of the ocular humors as well as a method of measuring these fluxions.

BOA II:50; Hirschberg §330.

196.1 Hueck, Alexander Friedrich, 1802-1842.

Das Sehen, seinem äussern Processe nach entwickelt. Riga: J. F. Deubner; Göttingen: Dieterische Buchhandlung, 1830.

146, [2] p.; 21 cm.

Provenance: Goethe-Sammlung, Günther Schmid (bookplate).

Completing his studies in Berlin, München, and Paris, A. F. Hueck became a professor of anatomy at the University of Tartu, Estonia, where he taught anatomy until his early death in 1842. In addition to several anatomical and physiological works, he published in the fields of paleontology, anthropology, and archeology. His ophthalmological investigations specialized in the crystalline lens and in ocular rotation.

This work is a systematic treatise on the visual process involving optical, physical, and physiological aspects. However, the author’s general approach to his topic is somewhat philosophical as he talks about objective and subjective sight and discusses the phenomenon of vision in an almost existentialistic manner. References to classics of medicine and natural philosophy also bear witness to Hueck’s unique “optical philosophy,” as well as the motto of his book:

Wär’ nicht das Auge sonnenhaft,
Wie könnten wir das Licht erblicken?
Läg’ nicht in uns des Gottes eigne Kraft,
Nie würd’ uns Göttliches entzücken.

— Goethe

AmEncOph VIII:6061; BM 108:445; Hirsch III:324; NUC 258:233.

Huette, Charles, jt. author.

See Bernard (46).

197 Hunayn ibn Ishāq al-Ibādī, 809?-873.

The book of the ten treatises on the eye, ascribed to Hunain ibn Is-haq (809-877 A.D.) The earliest existing systematic text-book of ophthalmology. The Arabic text edited from the only two known manuscripts, with an English translation and glossary by Max Meyerhof. Cairo: Government Press, 1928.

[2], liii, [3], 227, [3], [230] p., [3] plates: ill.; 25 cm.

The Arabs were the first to make a speciality of ophthalmology and much of their work remained authoritative until the early modern period. Hunayn’s treatise, written over a period of thirty years, was the first systematic textbook in Arabic literature. He has been called the “Erasmus of the Arabic Renaissance,” for much of our present knowledge of Greek medicine, and particularly Galen’s works, is dependent on his critical collations and translations. Meyerhof was the first to collate and publish Hunayn’s Ten treatises in its entirety.

These treatises contain extracts of all the passages from the works of Galen concerning the eye. The last treatise contains collyrium prescriptions taken from the books of Galen and from his compilers, Oribasius and Paulus Aegineta.

198 Huygens, Christiaan, 1629-1695.

Traité de la lumière. Avec un discours de la cause de la pesanteur, 1690. Facsimile reprint. London: Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1966 (Leyden: P. van der Aa, 1690).

[10], 180 p.: ill.; 19 cm.

The classical formulation of the wave theory of light and the explanation of reflection, refraction, and polarization. Overshadowed by the corpuscular theory of Newton (273), it was largely neglected until 1802, when Thomas Young (423.1) recovered and exploited it to explain optical interference. Two states of the two title pages are known. This facsimile is the state with Huygens’s name in full on both title pages; the other issue carries only the initials C. H. D. Z. in place of the full name.

Hirschberg §452-454.

199 Huygens, Christiaan, 1629-1695.

Opuscula postuma, quae continent Dioptricam, Commentarios de vitris figurandis, Dissertationem de corona & parheliis, Tractatum de motu, De VI centrifuga, Descriptionem automati planetarii. Leyden: C. Boutesteyn, 1703.

[20], 460 p., [24] plates: ill.; 20 cm. (4to)

Six posthumous works by the great physicist and mathematician, edited by professors De Volder of Leyden and Fullenius of Franeker in accordance with Huygens’s will. The bulk of the work consists of Dioptrica, an exhaustive study of optics, published just one year before Newton’s epoch-making work (273). A large part of this treatise is devoted to the theory of telescopes and microscopes and, next to his Traité de la lumière (198), it stands as Huygens’s most important contribution to optics. The author was the first to propound and develop what is now known as the wave theory of light.

Hirschberg §452-454.

Ivanov, Aleksandr, 1836-1880.

See Wecker (408.1).

200 Jackson, Edward, 1856-1942.

Skiascopy and its practical application to the study of refraction. Philadelphia: The Edwards & Docker Co., 1895.

112 p.: ill.; 23 cm.

Edward Jackson’s work on skiascopy, an obsolete term for retinoscopy, is one of the best productions of nineteenth century American ophthalmic literature. Although as early as the 1860s the mirror of the ophthalmoscope was used to detect regular astigmatism, the shadow test itself was not introduced until 1873, in an article by Ferdinand Cuignet in the Recueil d’ophthalmologie, in which he gave an account of the test using the plane mirror as a practical means of measuring errors of refraction. Jackson himself popularized the use of the plane mirror rather than the concave.

Chance, p. 106; Hirschberg §1031.

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